Collagen and Glucose

Protein(Collagen) and Glucose. These are what we need to be arguing about and what are the best sources of them. Vegan, Carnivore, Vegetarian, Keto, Pescatarian, Paleo, or Whatevero misses the point. It’s not what our stomach needs but what do our cells and their mitochondria need.

The protein that is most abundant in the human body is collagen. Collagen is the main component of connective tissue and is crucial for maintaining the structure and integrity of skin, tendons, bones, and ligaments. In fact, about one-third of the protein content in your body is made up of collagen. It also plays a vital role in maintaining healthy hair and nails.

Your body makes collagen by combining amino acids, which you can get from eating protein-rich foods. Additionally, the process requires vitamin C, zinc, and copper. Here are some foods that can help your body produce collagen:

Protein-Rich Foods: The key amino acids needed for collagen production include glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. You can get these from protein-rich foods like lean meats, fish, eggs, dairy products, and plant-based proteins like beans and legumes.

Vitamin C: This vitamin is necessary for collagen synthesis. Citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and grapefruits are rich in vitamin C. Other good sources include strawberries, bell peppers, and broccoli.

Zinc: This mineral is a co-factor in collagen synthesis. Zinc is present in high amounts in foods like oysters, red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, whole grains, and dairy products.

Copper: This trace mineral can help promote collagen production. You can find copper in organ meats, sesame seeds, cocoa, cashews, and lentils.

Bone Broth: This is a particularly good source of collagen, as it is made by boiling down the bones of animals, which are rich in this protein.

Antioxidant-Rich Foods: Antioxidants help protect against damage to collagen. Foods high in antioxidants include berries, green tea, dark chocolate, and colorful fruits and vegetables.

Remember, the best way to ensure adequate collagen production is to maintain a balanced, varied diet with plenty of whole foods. It’s also important to note that factors such as aging, smoking, and excessive sun exposure can impair collagen production and damage existing collagen in your body.

Your body makes collagen by combining amino acids, which you can get from eating protein-rich foods. Additionally, the process requires vitamin C, zinc, and copper. Here are some foods that can help your body produce collagen:

1. Protein-Rich Foods: The key amino acids needed for collagen production include glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. You can get these from protein-rich foods like lean meats, fish, eggs, dairy products, and plant-based proteins like beans and legumes.

2. Vitamin C: This vitamin is necessary for collagen synthesis. Citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and grapefruits are rich in vitamin C. Other good sources include strawberries, bell peppers, and broccoli.

3. Zinc: This mineral is a co-factor in collagen synthesis. Zinc is present in high amounts in foods like oysters, red meat, poultry, beans, nuts, whole grains, and dairy products.

4. Copper: This trace mineral can help promote collagen production. You can find copper in organ meats, sesame seeds, cocoa, cashews, and lentils.

5. Bone Broth: This is a particularly good source of collagen, as it is made by boiling down the bones of animals, which are rich in this protein.

6. Antioxidant-Rich Foods: Antioxidants help protect against damage to collagen. Foods high in antioxidants include berries, green tea, dark chocolate, and colorful fruits and vegetables.

And then there is Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar that your body uses as its main source of energy. All carbohydrates you consume are broken down into glucose during digestion, although the speed and efficiency of this process vary depending on the type of carbohydrate. Here are some food sources that can be easily turned into glucose:

1. Simple Carbohydrates: These are the quickest source of glucose since they require less processing in the body. These include fruits like bananas, grapes, apples, and oranges; honey; milk; and sugar.

2. Complex Carbohydrates: These take a bit longer to be converted into glucose, providing a more steady release of energy. They include whole grains (like brown rice, oats, quinoa), legumes (like beans, lentils), starchy vegetables (like potatoes, corn), and whole grain breads and pastas.

3. High Glycemic Index Foods: Foods with a high glycemic index (GI) are digested more quickly and hence raise blood glucose levels rapidly. This includes foods like white bread, most breakfast cereals, potatoes, and sugary drinks.

It’s important to note that while all these foods can be turned into glucose easily, it doesn’t mean you should rely on them for your energy needs. A balanced diet that includes a mix of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) along with fiber, vitamins, and minerals is the best approach for overall health. Also, consuming too many high-GI or simple carbohydrate foods can lead to health issues such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

The best way to ensure adequate collagen production is to maintain a balanced, varied diet with plenty of whole foods. It’s also important to note that factors such as aging, smoking, and excessive sun exposure can impair collagen production and damage existing collagen in your body.

The Less I Know – Ease and Homeostasis

Dust In The Wind – The Story of a Reluctant Winnower

“The Less I Know – Ease and Homeostasis” – Why Our Sources of Macro-Nutrients Likely Mean Little In The Overall Scheme of Longevity and Wellness.

Six years ago, I realized that there was something going on in my body that wasn’t as it should be. A year before that, I quit drinking. A great accomplishment, but I was still not making sober-minded decisions about my diet and lifestyle. Yes, I had quit drinking alcohol, but I replaced it with Skittles and Smarties. I put down one kind of sugar and picked up another. I didn’t slow my ‘sugar’ roll one bit. And it was taking its toll. I was continuing to malnourish myself, one bite at a time.

In September of 2016, I resolved to change my course. I removed junk food, fast food, sugar, candy, etc., from my diet. No more processed foods. Just whole foods. Based on the level of knowledge I had at that time, I began eating something along the lines of a keto/paleo diet. Finally, after another 9 months, I also tossed my daily consumption of products that contained caffeine and nicotine.

Slowly but surely, my body was correcting itself. Undoing the damage I had been doing for a lot of years. As long as it had taken for my body to come to this point of failure, the process of recovery wasn’t much faster. Martin Luther King, Jr. reminded us that “the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.” Change takes a long time, but it does happen. I suggest that our body works on that same curve. Slow and steady is the pace that wins the race.

During this time, I’ve dedicated a lot of time to reading everything I can about what conditions best facilitate a long and happy health span. And the more I read, the more confounded I become. My assumptions and expectations continue to be crushed and winnowed away. Dust in the wind. The more I read, the more I found, the less I knew.

During this six-year journey, my macro-nutrient consumption has been one of continual change and refinement. I’ve used myself as a guinea pig in an attempt to find the best answers for how to improve this individual body, and in the process, I have shared many of my ever-changing damned conclusions. And as sure as I’ve ever been at any step along the way, I can stand here today and simply say, I DON’T KNOW. I really don’t know what the best diet is, and I would likely be best served to simply share my findings with a grain of two of salt and maintain my willingness to prove my prior self wrong.

Every day, in every way, I am getting better and better. This I can say I know because I can feel it through my own experience. The following is what I can still say I don know, based on my current understanding at this time…


Protein, fats, and carbohydrates are what we call the macro-nutrients. We consume food that consists of these three things. All of which are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Proteins have some additional components that fats and carbohydrates don’t have, primarily Nitrogen.

Our bodies need these things to maintain proper form and function. Amino acids for the building blocks of life. Our body uses them to make its needed human proteins. Everything else beyond what is needed to build and maintain the body is converted into glucose(sugar) for immediate or later use. That glucose is what fuels our locomotion. And of the glucose that is in excess of our immediate need is converted into body fat which is stored for later use.

Does our body care where we get our macro-nutrients from? I really don’t think it cares as much as we think and convince ourselves it does. However, I do believe that some practices are better than others in the overall scheme of things. And for me, at this time, that looks like a Mediterranean diet.

What I can say with a relatively high level of certainty is that our body would prefer to spend less energy on the nutritional process than more. The more energy and time it has to spend on digesting foods, the less time and energy it has to spend on perfecting its understanding of homeostasis, whatever that looks like. It doesn’t want too much, nor does it want too little, and we would best be served to eat according to needs rather than desires or set schedules.

A Solution to Substance Abuse & Addiction

An easier, softer way…

As a recovering/recovered chip-carrying member of Alcoholics Anonymous for more than seven years, I believe there are many solutions for solving the problem of substance abuse and addiction. The following are some of my thoughts on how we can clean up the wreckage of our past so that we can pave the way to a more sober-minded future.

Substance abuse and addiction have severe consequences not only for individuals but also for society. Today, these problems extend beyond personal health issues, substantially affecting social, economic, and public health domains.

Firstly, substance abuse significantly impacts public health and safety. The relationship between substance abuse and various health issues, such as heart disease, mental disorders, and infectious diseases, is well-documented. Moreover, it is often linked with risky behaviors like unprotected sex and driving under the influence, which contributes to further health issues and accidents.

In terms of social consequences, substance abuse often leads to disruptions in family life and decreased productivity at work, thereby causing stress and instability within families and workplaces. Children growing up in such environments are at an increased risk of developing substance use disorders. Additionally, addiction is closely related to crime, with a significant proportion of those incarcerated being substance users, often driven to illicit activities to sustain their habit.

From an economic perspective, the cost of substance abuse is staggering, with substantial expenses incurred in health care, criminal justice, and lost productivity. As per the National Institute on Drug Abuse, substance abuse, and addiction cost American society more than $740 billion annually related to crime, lost work productivity, and healthcare.

Given the profound impact of substance abuse on society, it is essential to implement strategies to mitigate its effects and provide help for those affected. One such approach is investing in prevention and early intervention programs. These programs can target vulnerable populations, such as children and adolescents, and aim to equip them with skills to resist peer pressure and make healthy life choices. Such strategies are cost-effective as preventing substance abuse reduces the costs associated with treating addiction and related health issues.

Next, enhancing access to treatment and recovery resources is a critical aspect of managing substance abuse. One of the barriers to accessing treatment is the stigma associated with addiction. Societal attitudes often paint addiction as a moral failing rather than a health issue, preventing individuals from seeking help. Therefore, public health campaigns need to focus on changing societal perceptions of addiction and promoting the idea that recovery is possible.

Furthermore, integrating addiction treatment into primary health care can significantly reduce barriers to treatment. This involves training healthcare providers to screen for substance use disorders and provide brief interventions, referrals to specialized treatment, and follow-up care.

In addition, support for harm reduction programs, such as needle-exchange programs and opioid substitution therapy, is crucial. These programs can reduce the spread of infectious diseases, decrease overdose deaths, and help connect people with treatment resources.

Finally, addressing the social determinants of health can prevent substance abuse and addiction. This means working on broader societal issues, such as reducing poverty, improving education, and providing stable housing, which can contribute to a decrease in substance abuse rates.

In conclusion, substance abuse and addiction pose significant challenges to society, affecting public health, safety, and economic prosperity. However, by focusing on prevention, improving access to treatment, supporting harm reduction, and addressing social determinants of health, we can reduce the burden of addiction on society, promote health and well-being, and create more resilient, sober-minded communities and humanity.

Sobriety is almost never an easy choice, and a hard bottom is usually where most addicts need to find themselves before they can look up from the mess they have landed themselves in. As someone who was once at that hard bottom that it is possible to recover and rejoin society as a healthy, sober-minded, contributing individual. There are many pathways back. For me, Alcoholics Anonymous was the easier, softer way to find my way back.

The Malnutrition Top 10

Malnutrition can lead to a number of diseases and health problems due to a lack of essential nutrients in the body. Here are ten of the most common diseases related to malnutrition:

1. Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM): This refers to a group of malnutrition diseases caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. The most severe forms of PEM are kwashiorkor (characterized by edema or swelling, particularly in the legs and face) and marasmus (extreme thinness and wasting).

2. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which leads to fewer and smaller red blood cells being produced by the body. This can cause fatigue, weakness, and a decreased immune response.

3. Vitamin A Deficiency: Vitamin A is necessary for vision and immune function. Deficiency in this vitamin can lead to night blindness and an increased risk of infection. In severe cases, it can cause blindness.

4. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD): Iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate growth and metabolism. Lack of iodine can lead to goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland) and hypothyroidism. In severe cases, it can lead to cretinism in children, which is characterized by stunted physical and mental growth.

5. Rickets/Osteomalacia: These are conditions that affect bone development in children (rickets) and bone density in adults (osteomalacia), both caused by a deficiency in vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. Rickets can cause bone pain, delayed growth, and skeletal deformities, while osteomalacia can result in bone pain and muscle weakness.

6. Scurvy: This is caused by vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that helps to maintain the integrity of skin, blood vessels, bones, and connective tissue. Scurvy can cause fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.

7. Beriberi: This is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1), and it can lead to weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception, weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heartbeat. Severe cases can cause heart failure.

8. Pellagra: Pellagra is a disease caused by a deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3). It’s characterized by the four Ds: Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, and, if not treated, Death.

9. Zinc Deficiency: Zinc is important for growth and development, the immune response, neurological function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency can cause growth retardation, loss of appetite, and impaired immune function. In more severe cases, zinc deficiency can lead to hair loss, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, eye and skin lesions, and taste abnormalities.

10. Vitamin K Deficiency: This vitamin is necessary for normal blood clotting. A deficiency can lead to excessive bleeding, which can be particularly dangerous for newborns.

It’s important to note that the prevalence of these diseases can vary widely depending on geographic location, dietary practices, and access to healthcare. The best way to prevent them is to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the necessary nutrients.

Vitamin C – The Enigma

Enter The Enigmatic Vitamin C

In the unfathomable intricacy of the cosmos, with its kaleidoscope of elements and compounds, few are as taken for granted and yet so profoundly vital as that humble molecule known as vitamin C. This seemingly insignificant organic compound weaves a rather fascinating narrative. Born from the cauldron of evolution, it has scribed an epoch-defining tale in our human history, highlighting the intimate kinship of man and nature, one that invites us to contemplate not just our biological existence but our very essence and vitality.

Ascorbic acid, commonly referred to as vitamin C, tells an epic saga in itself, enmeshed within the evolutionary matrix of life. Embark upon this story a few hundred million years ago, when most mammals evolved to biosynthesize their vitamin C. But the plot thickens for us Homo sapiens, along with a handful of our primate kin and guinea pigs, abandoned this ability due to a genetic mutation – a twist in our DNA helix.

Herein lays the paradox. We humans, such magnificently complex organisms, are dependent on external sources for this vital molecule. Doesn’t that strike you as profoundly strange and yet beautifully interconnected? This dependency on vitamin C reflects our intrinsic and inescapable connection with nature. To nourish ourselves with it, we engage in an intricate dance with plants and animals, a testimony to the unity of life and a humbling reminder that we are, in fact, a part of the great cosmic drama, not mere observers.

Throughout our human story, vitamin C has made its appearances rather conspicuously. Take the age of seafaring exploration, when sailors embarked on months-long voyages into the unknown. These adventurers, having limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables, often fell prey to scurvy, a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. It is a poignant reminder of the consequences of severing our ties with nature, severing ourselves from that life-giving matrix.

But as is the nature of life, healing, and transformation arise from the ashes of destruction. The suffering brought by scurvy eventually led to the discovery of a simple cure – an influx of citrus fruits into the sailor’s diet, reconnecting them with their natural roots. Once science caught up and the concept of vitamins was understood in the early 20th century, the humble ascorbic acid was given its rightful identity – Vitamin C. It’s as if we relearned a pearl of ancient wisdom – that our well-being is entwined with the bounty of nature.

The exploration of vitamin C’s role in human health has been akin to a journey down a long and winding river. From its early association with scurvy prevention, we have unearthed its function in a myriad of essential physiological processes. As an antioxidant, it safeguards our cells against oxidative damage, that cruel yet inevitable process of aging and decay. It plays a crucial role in the synthesis of collagen, that prolific protein that forms our skin, bones, and blood vessels, binding us together in a structural ballet. And let us not forget its role in bolstering our immune system, that complex defense network that equips us to negotiate the ebb and flow of life.

Vitamin C, in essence, is a linchpin for our survival and well-being. Yet, isn’t it intriguing that such a fundamental ingredient to our existence is one we cannot produce internally? It’s as if life devised a clever mechanism to constantly remind us of our biological humility and our perpetual communion with nature.

Here we are, sentient beings suspended in the cosmos, bound by the need for a molecule that anchors us to the earth and to life itself. In its subtlety, vitamin C encourages us to reconnect with our roots, to engage in the dance of give-and-take with nature. It reminds us to honor the interconnectedness of life and uphold the delicate balance that sustains us.

It is not a mere molecule but a symbol, a testament to our inherent bond with the natural world, and a call to continually nurture this relationship for our collective health and well-being. In its absence, we are less vibrant, less alive. In its presence, we are buoyed, more connected, and pulsating with life.

Like a Zen koan, the tale of vitamin C leads us to an unexpected revelation – that we are not separate entities but part of an intricate tapestry of life. Thus, by consuming and being sustained by vitamin C, we are participating in a timeless dance, a profound dialogue between man and nature, between the individual and the cosmos.

So, the next time you consume vitamin C, whether in an orange, a bell pepper, or a supplement, remember the journey it signifies – our evolution, our history, our symbiosis with nature. Remember the delicate balance it represents, and honor this vital connection. For in this mindful act, we affirm not just our survival but also our interconnection with the cosmos, our vitality, and our well-being.

Herbivore, Carnivore, or Something Other?

Of the opinions of man, they are certainly without end. And all that holds them in their diversity think they are correct.

Over the last seven years, I’ve been trying my best to understand better what it means to be human and how to better practice a fuller and healthier life. Over that time, I have made many changes in my course based on continued self-evaluation and continual self-education along the way. My journey through a perpetual refining fire, if you will. Not of whim but of further refinement as I continue to learn and observe the effects of the modifications to my lifestyle and dietary practices along the way.

Today, I am in a place where I have embraced the idea that the best answers are usually found somewhere in the middle, away from the extremes.

When I first started this journey, I was determined to find myself in a much healthier place through an individual practice of recovery. I love that word…Recovery. The idea of changing my covering, the physical shelter of my consciousness, will, and spirit, if you will. That is exactly what I was doing and will continue to do.

Today, the physical practices that make up my journey consist of three distinct pillars. Quality sleep, healthy diet, and consistent daily exercise. Some might argue there is more, but for me, these are the macros of my current state of physical being. If I allow any one of these to suffer, the others follow.

In time, and in another post, I will expand further on all of these three, but today I want to focus on what I currently believe is likely the best way to approach nutrition(diet).

TL;DR: A Mediterranian Diet is likely the best solution.

What follows are my findings regarding human physiology and why I believe a Mediterranian Diet is likely the best solution to live a fuller and more lively healthspan rather than one of the current popular extremes found in veganism or diets that focus on consuming larger amounts of animal-based foods(Keto or Carnivore), based solely on physiological features and attributes.

Human physiology is significantly different from that of a true herbivore, and these differences reflect the omnivorous nature of humans. Here are some key differences:

  1. Digestive Tract: Herbivores have a longer digestive tract compared to humans. This is because plant material, especially cellulose, is more difficult to break down and requires more time to process. The longer digestive tract in herbivores allows for more efficient absorption of nutrients. In contrast, humans have a relatively shorter digestive tract suited to the digestion of both plant and animal matter.
  2. Stomach Acidity: Humans have a more acidic stomach compared to herbivores. The pH level in a human stomach is typically around 1.5 to 3.5, ideal for breaking down animal protein and killing potential pathogens found in meat. On the other hand, the stomach of a herbivore is usually less acidic, as it needs to support the growth of bacteria that help break down cellulose from plants.
  3. Teeth Structure: Herbivores have teeth designed for grinding plant material. For example, cows have large molars for grinding grass, and beavers have sharp incisors to cut through wood. Humans, however, have a variety of teeth, including incisors for biting, canines for tearing, and molars for grinding, reflecting our omnivorous diet.
  4. Enzymes: Herbivores produce certain enzymes that humans do not. For instance, they can produce cellulase, an enzyme needed to break down cellulose in plant cell walls. Humans, on the other hand, lack the ability to produce this enzyme, so we can’t fully digest raw plant material.
  5. Cecum: The cecum, a pouch at the beginning of the large intestine, plays a significant role in the digestion of plant material in many herbivores, hosting a large number of bacteria that break down cellulose. Humans have a small, functionally insignificant cecum. In fact, the human appendix is a vestigial cecum.
  6. Energy Utilization: Herbivores, especially ruminants like cows, utilize fermentation to break down plant matter, releasing gases in the process. This slower digestion process enables maximum extraction of nutrients from plant materials. Humans, on the other hand, digest food much more quickly, which is suited to the quick energy release needed for our high-metabolism brains and bodies.

These are general differences, and there are many variations among different species of herbivores, but overall, these points highlight some of the fundamental physiological distinctions between humans and true herbivores. But just as with herbivores, human physiology differs in several ways from that of true carnivores. Here are some notable differences:

  1. Digestive Tract: True carnivores tend to have shorter digestive tracts compared to humans. This is because meat can be broken down and absorbed relatively quickly and doesn’t require the longer transit time needed for plant material. The shorter digestive tract also helps to pass potentially harmful bacteria present in meat quickly.
  2. Stomach Acidity: Carnivores have a highly acidic stomach, more so than humans, to quickly break down proteins found in meat and kill bacteria that may be present in their food. While the human stomach is also acidic (with a pH of around 1.5 to 3.5), it is not as consistently strong as that of a carnivore.
  3. Teeth Structure: Carnivores have a dental structure designed for a meat-based diet. They have sharp, pointed teeth for tearing flesh and strong jaws to crush bone. Humans, in contrast, have a mixed set of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars) suitable for an omnivorous diet, including both plant and animal matter.
  4. Enzymes: Humans produce a variety of digestive enzymes to break down a mix of macronutrients (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates). Carnivores, on the other hand, primarily produce enzymes like proteases and lipases, which are needed to digest protein and fat.
  5. Vitamin Production: Some carnivores, like cats, can synthesize certain nutrients that humans cannot. For example, cats can produce taurine, an essential amino acid, and vitamin A from precursors, while humans must obtain these nutrients directly from their diet.
  6. Cecum and Colon: Carnivores typically have a small cecum and colon because these parts of the digestive tract are primarily involved in breaking down plant matter. Humans, on the other hand, have a larger colon that allows for the fermentation of plant material and the absorption of water and certain vitamins produced by gut bacteria.
  7. Dietary Cholesterol and Saturated Fat: Humans are more susceptible to high levels of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat, which can contribute to heart disease. In contrast, many carnivores can consume large amounts of these substances without the same health risks.

Caveat: It is crucial to remember that dietary cholesterol does not affect blood cholesterol levels as much as once thought. Your liver produces more cholesterol when you eat a diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates.

I personally suspect that if there are any problems related to the consumption of dietary cholesterol, it is found in the nutrient density and digestive availability of animal fats, much like refined carbohydrates and added sugars.

While these are general differences, it’s important to remember that there are many variations among different species of carnivores. These points highlight some of the key physiological distinctions between humans and true carnivores.

An omnivorous diet reflects the evolution of human gastrointestinal physiology and our dietary flexibility that has contributed to our survival and success as a species. This means humans are equipped to eat and process a wide range of foods, both plant and animal-based. Here are some reasons why the omnivore framework best fits our understanding of human gastrointestinal physiology:

  1. Diversity of Teeth: Humans have a variety of tooth types (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars), which reflects an omnivorous diet. Incisors and canines are designed for biting and tearing food (typical of carnivores), while our molars and premolars are flat and suited for grinding plant material (typical of herbivores).
  2. Digestive Enzymes: Humans produce a range of digestive enzymes that allow us to break down a variety of nutrients. For example, amylase, produced in our saliva, helps to break down carbohydrates, while proteases and lipases in our stomach and small intestine aid in the digestion of proteins and fats.
  3. Digestive Tract Length: Our digestive tract length is intermediate, not as long as in most herbivores, which need extensive time and space to break down cellulose, and not as short as in carnivores, which need to quickly process and expel meat to avoid harmful bacterial growth.
  4. Stomach Acidity: The acidity of our stomachs is capable of breaking down both plant and animal foods and can effectively kill many of the harmful bacteria found in meat.
  5. Dietary Requirements: Humans require a mix of nutrients, some of which are more readily available in animal foods (like vitamin B12 and preformed vitamin A) and others that are more abundant in plant foods (like vitamin C and dietary fiber).
  6. Evolutionary Evidence: From an evolutionary perspective, the ability to consume a mixed diet has likely been a key factor in human survival. Being able to eat a wide range of foods made us more adaptable to different environments and less dependent on a single food source.
  7. Metabolic Adaptability: Humans are metabolically flexible and able to shift our metabolism to use fats, proteins, or carbohydrates for energy depending on dietary intake and energy needs. This adaptability supports an omnivorous diet.
  8. Cultural and Social Factors: Humans across cultures and throughout history have consumed a diverse range of foods. This reflects not only our physiological adaptability but also our social and cultural practices around food, which often include both plant and animal sources.

Therefore, understanding humans as omnivores helps us appreciate the complexity and flexibility of our dietary needs and digestion. It recognizes our evolutionary history and cultural practices related to food over many thousands of years of evolution and adaptation.

Got Pee?

Middle of the night potty breaks getting in the way of a good nights sleep?

You might try reducing your protein intake in small steps. Most Americans in general, eat about double what the body actually needs even when eating a standard diet and working out regularly.

Fats and carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO), and proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON).

Our bodies can convert carbohydrates into glucose and fat. It can also convert fat into glucose. Our body has the ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen.

There is no storage options for excess proteins, so at night, the body strips off the nitrogen from the proteins so it can then convert the rest into glucose or fat for storage. Our body then passes the excess nitrogen out through the kidney along with plasma which…Makes you have to get up and pee throughout the night.

Humans: An Omnivorous Monogastric Animal

We, humans, are omnivorous monogastric animals, which means we have a single-chambered stomach. This is in contrast to ruminant animals like cows, which have a four-chambered stomach to aid in the digestion of tough plant fibers.

The human digestive system is monogastric. It includes a mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. Food is first broken down mechanically in the mouth and then chemically in the stomach and small intestine with the help of digestive enzymes. The nutrients from the food are then absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the small intestine.

Omnivores are heterotrophs. A heterotroph is an organism that cannot produce its own food. An organism that consumes a variety of food sources, including both animal and plant matter, as their main natural diet. Omnivores are carnivorous as well as herbivorous. Their digestive systems show adaptations that break down and absorb all kinds of food types, including a range of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, etc.

The digestive anatomy of human omnivores shows the characteristics of both herbivores and carnivores. Mechanisms are present to digest both plant and animal matter, especially with protease enzymes to digest proteins. We have well-developed canine teeth in our oral cavities to tear off the flesh in the diet. The gut of an herbivore is longer than that of a carnivore, but omnivores have a longer gut to capacitate both types of diets.

While humans can and do consume plant-based foods, we are omnivorous by nature, meaning we consume both plant-based and animal-based foods. Our digestive system is generally well adapted to digest a variety of foods, including meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes.

One key difference between herbivores and humans is that herbivores have specialized digestive systems adapted to break down and extract nutrients from plant-based foods, which are often difficult to digest due to their high fiber content.

Most mammals and birds are omnivorous. Interestingly, there are algae and plants with omnivorous food habits. Omnivorous mammals, of course, have well-developed digestive systems. Omnivorous plants and algae do not contain alimentary tracts. Instead, there are digesting mechanisms through the secretion of enzymes in plants and algae.

What foods are best suited for omnivorous monogastric animals(humans)?

Animals with this type of digestive system are better adapted to eating foods high in concentrates. Concentrates are highly digestible, high in energy, and low in cellulose fiber. Concentrates are typically 80 to 90 percent digestible.

Monogastric animals, including humans, require a balanced diet that provides essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Certain animals, namely horses, rabbits, and rodents, are referred to as modified monogastric organisms because they have a larger cecum that allows for the breaking down of cellulose fiber before entering the large intestine(colon). Humans, in contrast, have a very small or underdeveloped cecum which prevents them from properly breaking down cellulose fiber.

Here are some types of foods that are generally considered safe and good for monogastric animals; specifically humans:

  1. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are a good source of energy for monogastric animals. Good sources of carbohydrates include grains like wheat, oats, legumes, and corn, as well as fruits and vegetables.
  2. Proteins: Proteins are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of the body tissues. Good sources of protein include meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts.
  3. Fats: Fats are an important source of energy and help in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Good sources of fats include oils, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish.
  4. Vitamins and minerals: Vitamins and minerals are essential for many biological processes in the body. Good sources of vitamins and minerals include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy products, and meats.

It’s important to note that the specific nutritional requirements for those with monogastric digestive tracts vary depending on their age, size, activity level, and other factors. It’s also important to avoid overfeeding or underfeeding, as both can lead to health problems, especially regarding highly concentrated foods like meats and dairy products.


“CHONPS” refers to the six most common elements found in organic molecules: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S). These elements are fundamental building blocks of life, as they are found in many of the organic compounds that make up living organisms.

Organic chemistry is the study of these compounds and their properties, reactions, and structures. The acronym “CHONPS” is commonly used in organic chemistry to represent the key elements found in organic molecules.


Carbon makes up approximately 18% of the human body by mass. This is because carbon is a key component of many essential molecules in the body, such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. It plays a critical role in the human body, as it is an essential component of all organic molecules. Here are some of the key roles that carbon plays in the human body:

  1. Organic molecule formation: Carbon is the backbone of all organic molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. These molecules are essential for the structure and function of cells and tissues in the body.
  2. Energy production: Carbon-based molecules such as glucose and fatty acids are broken down in the process of cellular respiration to generate ATP, which is the primary source of energy for cells.
  3. pH balance: Carbon dioxide (CO2) plays a role in regulating the pH of the body by combining with water to form bicarbonate ions, which act as a buffer to help prevent fluctuations in pH.
  4. Waste removal: Carbon-based compounds such as urea are produced as waste products of metabolism and are removed from the body through urine.

Carbon is a critical element for the proper functioning of the human body, playing key roles in the formation of organic molecules, energy production, pH balance, and waste removal.

Hydrogen plays several important roles in the human body:

  1. As a component of water: Hydrogen is a key component of water, which is essential for life. Water is involved in many physiological processes, such as maintaining body temperature, transporting nutrients and waste, and lubricating joints.
  2. As a component of biomolecules: Hydrogen is a key component of many biomolecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It is also a component of nucleic acids, which carry genetic information.
  3. pH balance: Hydrogen ions (H+) are involved in maintaining the pH balance of the body. pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution, and maintaining a proper pH balance is essential for many physiological processes.
  4. Energy production: Hydrogen plays a key role in energy production in the body. In the process of cellular respiration, hydrogen ions are used to generate ATP, which is the primary source of energy for cells.

Hydrogen is an essential element for the proper functioning of the human body.


Oxygen plays a critical role in the human body, as it is essential for the process of cellular respiration, which is the primary way in which cells generate energy. Here are some of the key roles that oxygen plays in the human body:

  1. Energy production: Oxygen is used in the process of cellular respiration to generate ATP, which is the primary source of energy for cells.
  2. Brain function: The brain is one of the most oxygen-dependent organs in the body, and a lack of oxygen can quickly lead to brain damage or death.
  3. Cardiovascular function: Oxygen is carried by red blood cells and delivered to tissues throughout the body. It is essential for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system.
  4. Immune function: Oxygen is involved in the functioning of the immune system, helping to kill bacteria and other pathogens.
  5. Detoxification: Oxygen is involved in the process of detoxification in the liver, helping to break down toxins and other harmful substances.

Oxygen is a crucial element for the proper functioning of the human body, and a lack of oxygen can quickly lead to serious health problems.


Nitrogen plays several important roles in the human body:

  1. As a component of amino acids: Nitrogen is a key component of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins have a variety of essential functions in the body, including building and repairing tissues, transporting molecules, and acting as enzymes.
  2. As a component of nucleotides: Nitrogen is also a key component of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. These molecules carry genetic information and play a key role in the regulation of cellular processes.
  3. As a component of nitric oxide: Nitrogen is also a component of nitric oxide, which is a signaling molecule involved in the regulation of blood pressure, neurotransmission, and immune function.
  4. As a component of urea: Nitrogen is also involved in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in the body, such as amino acids. Urea, a waste product of this metabolism, contains nitrogen and is excreted in urine.

Nitrogen is an essential element for the proper functioning of the human body, playing key roles in the structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, and other important molecules.


Phosphorus plays several important roles in the human body:

  1. Bone and teeth formation: Phosphorus is a key component of hydroxyapatite, which is the mineral that makes up bones and teeth. It plays a critical role in bone and teeth formation, maintenance, and repair.
  2. Energy production: Phosphorus is also involved in energy production in the body, as it is a component of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary molecule used by cells to store and transfer energy.
  3. DNA and RNA synthesis: Phosphorus is a component of DNA and RNA, which carry genetic information and play a critical role in the regulation of cellular processes.
  4. Cell membrane structure: Phosphorus is a component of phospholipids, which are the main structural components of cell membranes.
  5. pH balance: Phosphorus is involved in maintaining the pH balance of the body, as it can act as a buffer to help prevent fluctuations in pH.

Phosphorus is an essential element for the proper functioning of the human body, playing key roles in bone and teeth formation, energy production, DNA and RNA synthesis, cell membrane structure, and pH balance.


Sulfur plays several important roles in the human body:

  1. Protein synthesis: Sulfur is a key component of many amino acids, including cysteine and methionine. These amino acids are important for the synthesis of proteins, which have a variety of essential functions in the body.
  2. Antioxidant defense: Sulfur is a component of the antioxidant glutathione, which plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
  3. Detoxification: Sulfur is involved in the detoxification of harmful substances in the body, such as drugs and environmental toxins.
  4. Connective tissue: Sulfur is also involved in the synthesis of connective tissue, such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.
  5. Regulation of gene expression: Sulfur-containing compounds, such as sulforaphane, can help to regulate gene expression and may have anti-cancer properties.

Sulfur is an essential element for the proper functioning of the human body, playing key roles in protein synthesis, antioxidant defense, detoxification, connective tissue synthesis, and regulation of gene expression.

All Carbs Are Created Equal. Not All Carbs Remain The Same

Plant-based/whole foods(grains, fruit, vegetables, and beans) have fiber in them, which slows the rate of glucose entering your bloodstream. Fiber also promotes a sense of fullness and is good for your digestive system. Animal-based foods and processed/refined carbohydrates contain no fiber. This causes your glucose levels to spike, and then shortly after, your blood sugar crashes. This ultimately makes you feel hungrier sooner, even if you recently consumed an abundance of these calories.

Carbohydrates, or carbs for short, can be divided into two groups: “simple” and “complex” or “whole” and “refined.” Whole carbs are in foods that are not highly processed and contain natural fiber, while refined carbs have been processed more and have had their natural fiber removed or altered.

Although bread, rice, pasta, and cereal are all carbs, they are not all the same when it comes to nutrition. Processed carbs like white bread, white rice, cookies, and soft drinks are often consumed in large amounts in the United States. However, these foods have been blamed for causing health problems such as obesity, heart disease, and type II diabetes.

Eating too many simple sugars and refined flour products can lead to these health problems. It’s important to be aware of the differences between whole and refined carbs and to choose whole carbs whenever possible to maintain good health.

Carbohydrates are not the problem. Too much glucose is. This is why we monitor glucose rather than carbohydrates.

Does the human body need carbohydrates to survive? No, however, it’s important to note that the conversion of proteins into glucose is not the body’s preferred method of producing energy. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, and when there is an adequate supply of carbohydrates in the diet, the body does not need to use proteins for energy.

Yes, proteins can be converted into glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis, but this process only occurs in the liver and only when the body needs glucose for energy. Gluconeogenesis is an extremely costly and complex process that involves breaking down amino acids from proteins and converting them into glucose molecules that can be used by the body for energy.

The primary use of proteins is and should remain for the building and repairing of tissues, making hormones and enzymes, and maintaining a healthy immune system.

Our body can do amazing things in sub-optimal conditions, like turning proteins into glucose. But why waste the energy and effort when we could simply give our body carbohydrates, its preferred form of glucose?