Colonization. A Virus of the Mind?

Is there any point in time where the species homo sapiens sapiens wasn’t engaging in the act of colonization? I think not. And it is my suggestion that it is an intrinsic part of human nature and existence. That at the very least there was at some point in human evolutionary development a beneficial and necessary use for it as a function. My question now, though, is, does it still serve that same purpose as beneficial for evolution, or is it a part of evolution that is truly fading away?

Personally, I would like to think that colonization is in a state of atrophy, ultimately becoming functionless in human evolution.

Why do we inherently, as humans, want to colonize everything? Because it is a virus we have. A virus of the mind.

Perhaps a poem?

From cradle, to grave, what first steps taken?
Amongst ancient echoes ancestors awaken.
From a primal urge, to an endless drive,
We seek, we explore, we expand, to thrive.

Down verdant valleys, over rugged peaks,
Our relentless quest, a conquering spirit seeks.
Is it a force of nature, primal, raw, unrefined?
Yes, colonization – a virus of the mind.

This tribal aspiration toward empire inclined,
These seeds of dominion, domination refined.
The human species conquered and mined,
Through every era this behavior entwined,

Our urge to conquer, to claim, to bind,
What distant treasures await we will find?
To what do we owe this quirky desire,
Will it grow like a flood, or burn out like a fire?

The world we know shrinks under our gaze,
This mystery of old continues to amaze.
We ponder most deeply, evolutions fair stride,
Is this urge now a relic to be cast aside?

Will these ancient impulses still find room,
What once was progress, now slated for doom.
In a world so connected, no longer so vast,
I sense a shift, a call to recast.

This virus of mind, once vital, now lame,
Humanity ponders evolution’s new aim.
This ancient desire, through atrophy fade,
Once evolution whispers, a new way is made.

We once were seekers of lands to possess,
Now stewards of self, undoing distress.
A mind’s fair dance through time and space,
Perhaps a new rhythm will find its place.

From conqueror to healer, transitions we make,
Survival in balance, for our planet’s sake.
As nomads of history, we write in our genes,
A bold new chapter of destiny convenes.

Preceding CO2 Transport: Respiration

January 7, 2024

Me: What process precedes carbon dioxide transport?

ChatGPT: The process that precedes carbon dioxide (CO2) transport in the body is cellular respiration. This is a metabolic process that occurs in the cells of organisms. Here’s a brief overview of the process: 

  1. Glycolysis: This is the first step of cellular respiration and takes place in the cytoplasm of cells. Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, is broken down into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate. This process produces a small amount of ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell) and releases electrons that are used in later stages.
  2. Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle: Pyruvate enters the mitochondria of the cell, where it is converted into acetyl CoA, a two-carbon molecule. Acetyl CoA then enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), where it is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide. This process generates more electrons for the next stage and a small amount of ATP.
  3. Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation: This is the final stage of cellular respiration and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The electrons generated in the previous steps are used to create a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of a large amount of ATP. Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor and combines with protons to form water.

After the production of CO2 in the citric acid cycle, CO2 is then transported out of the cell into the blood, where it is carried to the lungs for exhalation. The transport of CO2 involves several mechanisms, including being dissolved directly in the plasma, chemically bound to hemoglobin, or converted into bicarbonate ions.

Me: What are the steps that precede glycolysis in the answer you provided?

ChatGPT: Before glycolysis in the cellular respiration process, there are key preparatory steps involving the intake and processing of nutrients:

  1. Nutrient Intake: The first step involves the consumption and digestion of food. Carbohydrates in the food are broken down into simpler sugars like glucose, which is a primary fuel for glycolysis. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. These components are absorbed into the bloodstream through the digestive system.
  2. Transportation to Cells: Once in the bloodstream, glucose and other nutrients are transported to various cells throughout the body.
  3. Glucose Uptake by Cells: Cells take in glucose from the bloodstream. This process is facilitated by insulin in many types of cells. Insulin is a hormone that signals cells to increase glucose uptake, effectively lowering blood sugar levels.
  4. Glucose Activation: Before glucose can enter the glycolysis pathway, it must be “activated”. This involves phosphorylation (adding a phosphate group), which is carried out by enzymes like hexokinase. This step uses energy in the form of ATP, converting it to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). The phosphorylation of glucose helps to keep the concentration of glucose low in the cell, allowing for continued glucose diffusion into the cell.

These steps ensure that glucose is available and prepared for the glycolysis pathway, which then leads into the rest of the cellular respiration process.

Me: Can you explain this whole process step by step from ingestion of nutrients to the end of the process where we exhale the CO2 from our lungs?

ChatGPT: Certainly! The journey from nutrient ingestion to the exhalation of carbon dioxide is a complex and fascinating process that involves multiple systems in the body. Here’s a step-by-step explanation:

 1. Ingestion and Digestion of Nutrients

  • Ingestion: It starts with eating food, which contains carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
  • Digestion: In the digestive system, these nutrients are broken down:
    • Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars like glucose.
    • Proteins are broken down into amino acids.
    • Fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • These nutrients are then absorbed into the bloodstream, primarily in the small intestine.

2. Transportation and Uptake of Glucose

  • Transport to Cells: Glucose and other nutrients are transported via the bloodstream to various cells in the body.
  • Cellular Uptake of Glucose: Cells absorb glucose, facilitated by insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels.

3. Cellular Respiration: Energy Production from Nutrients

  • Glycolysis:
    • Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.
    • Glucose is converted into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP (energy) and NADH (an electron carrier).
  • Pyruvate Oxidation and Citric Acid Cycle:
    • In the mitochondria, pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA.
    • Acetyl CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle (or Krebs Cycle), producing more NADH, FADH2 (another electron carrier), and a small amount of ATP.
    • Carbon dioxide is released as a waste product in this cycle.

4. Electron Transport Chain and ATP Production

  • Electron Transport Chain:
    • Located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    • NADH and FADH2 from previous steps donate electrons, which are passed through a series of proteins in the membrane.
    • This process creates a proton gradient across the membrane.
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation:
    • Protons flow back across the membrane through an enzyme called ATP synthase.
    • This flow drives the production of a large amount of ATP.
  • Oxygen’s Role: Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor, combining with protons to form water.

5. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Exhalation

  • Transport of CO2:
    • The carbon dioxide produced in the mitochondria diffuses into the bloodstream.
    • It’s carried in the blood in three forms: dissolved in plasma, chemically bound to hemoglobin, or as bicarbonate ions.
  • Return to the Lungs: Blood transports CO2 back to the lungs.
  • Exhalation: Finally, CO2 is expelled from the lungs when we exhale.

Integration of Systems

This entire process involves an intricate collaboration between the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, and endocrine systems, demonstrating the complex harmony of human physiology. From the initial ingestion of food to the final breath that expels carbon dioxide, each step is crucial for the efficient production and utilization of energy in the body.

Me: Yes, and thank you ChatGPT.

Are Humans Well Suited For a Frugivore Fare?

This is my response to a post in a friends Facebook group that promotes a more fruit based diet. Enjoy…

<–MY OPINION–>Personally, I still believe that we are omnivores best suited for a whole-food, single-ingredient diet. A diet made up of a whole collection of single ingredients rather than highly processed foods.

Can someone consume a frugivore fare and live healthy and well? I believe they can for a time. Perhaps maybe even for a long time. It really just depends on whether or not they can get a broad enough spectrum of ALL the nutrients and building blocks their body needs in their daily fare. Most cannot in our modern world, and eventually, the wheels will fall off of their under-nourished frugivore bus. Maybe not in 2 years, or 5 years, or even 10 years, but eventually, the nutritional piper will need to be paid.

On the other end of the spectrum(extreme), you have the cray cray carnivores. They can get along just fine for a time too. But eventually, in like manner, the wheels will fall off of their bus as well. For them, though, it will be a woefully painful calling of metabolic madness.

Both diets, in my opinion, are different wings of an omnivore bird.

And this is why I still believe that we are best served by being a well-balanced omnivore in the dietary portion of our existence.

Life is meant to be lived as a well-formed and balanced kingdom where exercise is King and diet is Queen, and without both, you don’t have a kingdom.

Work hard, eat right, and sleep right. If you can do these three things almost everything else will follow and fall into place according to natural law.

Listen to your body. Even if it is telling you something that may not concur with the path you have been on for some time.

Again, this is my opinion, based on my studies of human physiology and disease pathology over the last 6+ years. Thanks for reading…😎 and be blessed.

A New Model

Car mechanics wouldn’t try to learn how cars work by only studying individual components of a car or by looking at toy cars, but this is essentially how medical science has been taught over the years. They should be working with real humans, learning how existing, fully functioning, complex human creatures work. Not focusing so deeply on misfolded proteins or just one system and correcting that single system or misfold with a pill, but reshaping the whole misfolded protein(human) mess from the inside out.

I am Adam Matryoshka

The human species is not simply a bunch of rugged individuals all living on a blue marble orbiting the sun but a single entity. And for the fun of it, I will refer to this creature as ADAM and that ADAM lives amongst 8.7 million other species of plants and animals here on the third rock from the sun.

That we, as individual discrete organisms, are actually microorganisms within the greater macro-organism, ADAM. Which is also a species-level micro-organism consisting of some 3.8 million parts working together within Mother Nature, or what some might call Biofilm Earth.

Mother Nature(Earth) is a holobiont, and we(ADAM), too, are a holobiont. And who knows, maybe even our cells and microbes within us are also holobionts. Like a Matryoshka doll all the way down. Holobiont refers to an organism and its symbiotic partners (typically microbial) together as a single biological entity. The concept underscores the idea that the macro-organism and its microorganisms are so interconnected that they operate functionally as a single unit. The term “holobiont” derives from “holo-” (meaning whole or entire) and “biont” (meaning living entity). The combined term suggests an integrated system where the host organism and its associated microbial communities interact in ways that influence each other’s fitness, development, and evolution.

ADAM is simultaneously a discrete whole as well as a part of a larger whole. ADAM can be understood as the constituent part–wholes in and of a hierarchy. ADAM is a subsystem within a larger system, simultaneously evolving while also a part of a greater evolving system composed of other species as well.

ADAM is, by definition, a holon. Holons are self-reliant units with a degree of independence and can handle contingencies without asking higher authorities for instructions. Holons are simultaneously subject to control from one or more of these higher authorities. Holons are stable forms that can withstand disturbances and are intermediate, providing a context for the proper functionality of the larger whole.

I want to present a better, more accurate, simpler, more holistic understanding of how something like the black plague, Spanish flu, or our most recent species-level event that just happened is not spread by an invisible viral particle or a demon but through quorum sensing and mirror neurons. Basically, it is a communication system used by what I will refer to as bacteria(INDIVIDUAL HUMANS) to monitor and respond to changes in population density by altering gene expression. Essentially, it’s a way for bacteria(HUMANS) to “talk” to each other and coordinate their behavior, much like individuals in a large crowd of discrete species adjusting their actions based on the number of other species around them. This coordinated behavior allows human populations to act as multicellular entities in certain contexts.

That, what we are experiencing in these species-level pandemics is a coordinated event orchestrated by our species host, or ADAM and his immune system, to cleanse HIS body(the whole of humanity) of its diseased and dying cells(individuals) within the context of the holobiont(Adam), that is living as an individual species(holon) within a greater holobiont we call Mother Earth.

Protein Deamination is Our Damnation

Do you eat a protein-rich diet? Do you take any protein supplements because you are trying to build big muscles in the gym?

Have you ever met or known someone with a protein deficiency? Someone who truly had a protein deficiency? That’s because the only people who ever suffer from insufficient protein have to live in a part of the world where food is scarce or non-existent. In places like Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central America. It is usually prevalent in children and newborns. During times of hunger induced by natural calamities — such as droughts or floods — or political upheaval, these countries often have a limited supply or absence of food.

Lack of protein in the diet causes Kwashiorkor. Protein is found in every cell in your body. Protein is required in your diet for your body to repair and replace cells. This is how a healthy human body regenerates cells regularly. Protein is particularly necessary for growth in children and during pregnancy. When the body is deficient in protein, growth and regular bodily functions slow down, and kwashiorkor develops. (1) (Kwashiorkor, n.d.)

Today, in the United States we are living in what is called a postindustrial world/society. A postindustrial society is marked by a transition from a manufacturing-based economy to a service-based economy, a transition that is also connected with subsequent societal restructuring. Postindustrialization is the next evolutionary step from an industrialized society and is most evident in countries and regions that were among the first to experience the Industrial Revolution, such as the United States, western Europe, and Japan. (2) (Robinson, 2013)

To reiterate, in the United States, we live in a postindustrial world/society. And as such we have no want for even the most basic of nutritional needs. And the reality is that most of us in the United States have access to and consume too much good stuff, food, and otherwise.

As such, I will demonstrate below why our health is suffering so badly in this world of plenty we call home. The short answer is…Too much protein. When we consume protein above and beyond our body’s physiological needs, our body’s innate mechanisms become the machinery that forms the basis of our damnation. Our early demise.

The following is a simplified explanation of what happens inside the human body when we consume protein above its immediate needs at any moment in time.

Deamination is the process of removing an amino group from an amino acid. This process is crucial because it allows the amino acid to be converted into a form that can be used for energy production or other metabolic processes. It is

It’s important to note that while gluconeogenesis is a critical metabolic pathway, the body generally prefers to use carbohydrates and fats as the primary sources of energy, resorting to protein catabolism as a significant energy source only under conditions of dietary deficiency or metabolic stress.

When the body uses amino acids for energy, deamination occurs in the liver, converting the nitrogen-containing amino group into ammonia, which is then converted into urea and excreted by the kidneys. The remaining part of the amino acid, which is now without the amino group, enters various metabolic pathways, including the Krebs cycle, for energy production or the synthesis of glucose or fatty acids.

Which bodily process happens first, proteolysis or deamination?

The process by which the body breaks down protein into individual amino acids is called “proteolysis.” This process involves the breakdown of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in proteins. Proteolysis is carried out by enzymes known as proteases and peptidases. It occurs in various parts of the body, including the stomach and small intestine, where dietary proteins are digested, as well as within cells, where proteins are continually broken down and recycled. Proteolysis is a key step in protein metabolism, allowing the body to utilize the amino acids for various functions, including new protein synthesis, energy production, and other metabolic processes.

Proteolysis occurs before deamination in the sequence of protein metabolism. Here’s the typical order:

  1. Proteolysis: This is the first step, where proteins are broken down into individual amino acids. Proteolysis happens through the action of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract for dietary proteins or by cellular enzymes for endogenous proteins.
  2. Deamination: Once amino acids are released from proteins, they are used for various purposes. Deamination may occur if an amino acid is to be used for energy or converted into other compounds. This is the process where the amino group is removed, typically in the liver.

Proteolysis is the initial process that releases amino acids from proteins, and deamination is a subsequent step that further modifies amino acids for various metabolic needs.

When proteins are metabolized, they are broken down into their constituent amino acids. A key component of these amino acids is nitrogen. During the catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids, the amino group (NH2) is removed in a process called deamination. This process occurs mainly in the liver.

Nitrogenous wastes are a byproduct of the metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids. The digestive process breaks down proteins into amino acids, which then enter the body’s metabolic pathways, producing nitrogenous wastes.

Removing the amino group results in the formation of ammonia (NH3), which is toxic. The liver then converts this ammonia into less toxic substances, mainly urea in mammals, including humans. This conversion is part of the urea cycle. The urea is then transported to the kidneys, where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted from the body in urine.

To reiterate, nitrogenous wastes, particularly ammonia and urea, which are byproducts of amino acid deamination, are harmful to the brain, soft tissues, and the cardiovascular system due to their toxic effects, especially in high concentrations. Here’s why:

  1. Ammonia Toxicity: Ammonia, a direct byproduct of deamination, is highly toxic, especially to the brain and nervous system. It disrupts normal cellular and neurological functions.
  2. Urea and Osmotic Imbalance: While urea, which is less toxic than ammonia, is a safer way for the body to transport and excrete nitrogen, high levels of urea cause osmotic imbalances. This leads to dehydration and stress on cells, including those in the cardiovascular system.
  3. Metabolic Acidosis: Accumulation of nitrogenous wastes leads to metabolic acidosis, a condition where the blood becomes too acidic. This impairs cardiovascular function and damages heart tissue.
  4. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: Excess nitrogenous waste induces inflammation and oxidative stress, contributing to tissue damage and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

The body normally converts ammonia to urea in the liver (via the urea cycle) and excretes it through the kidneys to avoid these harmful effects. However, suppose this system is overwhelmed(over-consumption) or impaired (as in liver or kidney disease). In that case, nitrogenous waste levels become dangerously high, leading to toxicity and damage beyond the body’s ability to repair.

What kind of diets result in higher levels of nitrogenous waste?

Diets that result in higher levels of nitrogenous waste are typically those rich in proteins and nucleic acids. This is because the metabolism of these macronutrients involves the removal and excretion of nitrogen:

  1. High-Protein Foods: Foods with high protein content are the primary contributors to increased nitrogenous waste. This includes:
    • Meat (beef, pork, lamb, poultry)
    • Fish and seafood
    • Eggs
    • Dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt)
    • Legumes (beans, lentils, soy products)
    • Nuts and seeds
  2. Foods Rich in Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are also metabolized into nitrogenous wastes, though to a lesser extent than proteins. Foods that are particularly high in nucleic acids include:
    • Organ meats (liver, kidney, heart)
    • Seafood (especially sardines, mackerel, and shellfish)
    • Yeast and yeast extracts

To reiterate, when these foods are digested, the body breaks down their proteins into amino acids and their nucleic acids into nucleotides. The nitrogen-containing parts of these molecules are then converted primarily into urea, which is excreted by the kidneys.

When consuming a diet high in protein, it is important to support the kidneys in effectively processing and eliminating these nitrogenous wastes. Excessive protein intake over an extended period strains the kidneys, particularly in individuals with preexisting kidney conditions.

Here is what one should expect if one consumes a high-protein diet that results in excess proteolysis and deamination.

  1. Atherosclerosis: There is evidence that certain metabolic by-products of protein contribute to atherosclerosis and the buildup of plaques in the arteries.
  2. Calcifications, Vascular and Otherwise: In the context of kidney disease, conditions like hyperphosphatemia (high phosphate levels) occur due to excessive protein intake. This leads to vascular and other systemic calcifications and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
  3. Hypertension: High protein intake, especially from animal sources, increases blood pressure, a major risk factor for CVD. This complex relationship involves various factors, including changes in kidney function and fluid balance due to the handling of the by-products of protein metabolism.
  4. Kidney Stress and Damage: The kidneys filter waste products, including those produced during deamination. Excessive deamination overburdens the kidneys, leading to or exacerbating kidney diseases, including chronic kidney disease and azotemia.
  5. Increased Urea and Uremia: As a result of excessive deamination, urea levels in the blood increase, leading to a condition called uremia, where the kidneys cannot filter it efficiently. Uremia has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as it contributes to factors like endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and inflammation.
  6. Inflammation: Chronic kidney disease and uremia lead to systemic inflammation, which is a known contributor to cardiovascular disease.
  7. Liver Disorders: Since the liver converts ammonia (a by-product of deamination) into urea, excessive deamination stresses the liver. In cases of liver dysfunction, ammonia may not be adequately converted, leading to hyperammonemia, which is toxic, especially to the brain.
  8. Metabolic Effects: Chronic consumption of excessive protein, especially animal protein, has various metabolic effects, such as increasing the risk of kidney stones, altering calcium balance, affecting bone health, and impacting kidney function, especially in individuals with pre-existing kidney disease.
  9. Metabolic Acidosis: Deamination leads to an accumulation of acidic compounds in the body. It disrupts the body’s acid-base balance, leading to metabolic acidosis. This condition causes fatigue, rapid breathing, confusion, and in severe cases, shock or death.
  10. Alterations in Gut Microbiota: High protein intake, particularly from animal sources, alters the composition and function of the gut microbiota. This has various implications for gut health and possibly systemic inflammation.
  11. Electrolyte Imbalances: The process of deamination and the subsequent handling of its by-products affects the balance of electrolytes in the body, potentially leading to imbalances that affect muscle and nerve function.
  12. Bone Health Issues: Excessive protein intake and deamination affect the body’s calcium balance, leading to bone loss and increased risk of osteoporosis.

At this point in time, I believe this is likely the most significant modifiable factor to our species overall mortality. Imagine if a pharmaceutical company offered a single pill that could prevent all of these 12 problems. Everyone would be clamoring for it, the individual that stumbled across this solution would be considered a savior of mankind.

There is a way to do this with a pill. If you still don’t see the solution, if it is not obvious, please don’t hesitate to ask me how.

  1. Kwashiorkor. (n.d.).
  2. Robinson, R. C. (2013, November 19). Postindustrial society | Urbanization, Automation, Globalization. Encyclopedia Britannica.

I Sweat; Therefore, I Am Becoming

I’m really beginning to question the experience of my existence before this last 5 months of daily sauna.

The substance of what I am experiencing from this self-experiment just keeps pushing out a boundary of hydration that I could have never imagined. And I know I am not unique in the hydration experience that I was previously living, before June 22, 2023, any more than anyone else who has been living a life without profuse sweating. Most of humanity is no longer sweating because of our advances in technology. And if we are not allowing hydration to flow throughout our body in this manner then it should really be no wonder that we as a species are suffering the ill fate of our joyously celebrated industrial and technological revolutions that have brought us to this leisurely place in time.

The Role of Protein on Cardiovascular Disease and Associated Cardiac Events

How does protein deamination affect atherosclerotic plaque, cardiovascular health, and arterial calcification?

Protein deamination, a process where amino groups are removed from amino acids, can have several implications for cardiovascular health, particularly in the context of atherosclerotic plaque formation and arterial calcification. Here’s how these processes are interconnected:

  1. Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation:
    • Role of Amino Acids: Certain amino acids, especially those containing sulfur (like homocysteine), can influence atherosclerotic processes. Elevated levels of homocysteine, which can result from abnormal protein deamination, are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
    • Inflammatory Response: Deaminated proteins or amino acids might be seen as foreign by the body, triggering an immune and inflammatory response. This inflammation can contribute to the development of atherosclerotic plaques.
  2. Cardiovascular Health:
    • Endothelial Dysfunction: Abnormal protein deamination can lead to the production of substances that are harmful to the endothelial lining of blood vessels. This can result in endothelial dysfunction, a precursor to atherosclerosis.
    • Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: The by-products of protein deamination can contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation, which are key factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases.
  3. Arterial Calcification:
    • Calcium Deposition: Certain by-products of protein deamination can contribute to the calcification process in arteries. This calcification can make the arterial walls stiff and less elastic, increasing the risk of hypertension and other cardiovascular problems.
    • Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Protein deamination influences the behavior of vascular smooth muscle cells, promoting their transformation into a type that deposits calcium, thus contributing to arterial calcification.
What role do protein deamination and excess circulating phosphorus that results from deamination play in atherosclerosis?

Protein deamination and excess circulating phosphorus, both arising from metabolic processes in the body, can have significant roles in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Here’s how these factors are interlinked:

  1. Protein Deamination:
    • Endothelial Dysfunction: Protein deamination results in the formation of various by-products, such as ammonia and keto acids. These by-products can cause endothelial dysfunction, a key factor in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells line the inner walls of blood vessels, and their dysfunction can lead to reduced nitric oxide availability, increased oxidative stress, and inflammatory response, all of which contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation.
    • Inflammatory Response: The by-products of protein deamination can also trigger an immune response, leading to chronic inflammation. Inflammation is a crucial element in developing atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to their growth and instability.
  2. Excess Circulating Phosphorus:
    • Vascular Calcification: High levels of phosphorus in the blood, often a consequence of impaired kidney function or dietary factors, can lead to vascular calcification. This process involves the deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the arterial walls, making them stiffer and more prone to damage. Vascular calcification is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
    • Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction: Excess phosphorus can induce oxidative stress and further exacerbate endothelial dysfunction. This creates a cycle where impaired endothelial function leads to more plaque formation and arterial stiffness, escalating the progression of atherosclerosis.

The relationship between protein deamination, phosphorus levels, and atherosclerosis highlights the importance of maintaining a balanced diet and proper kidney function, as kidneys play a crucial role in regulating phosphorus levels. Individuals with chronic kidney disease are particularly at risk, as they often have elevated phosphorus levels and altered amino acid metabolism, which can accelerate the development of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis.

Therefore, in the context of cardiovascular health, it’s essential to monitor and manage factors like protein intake and phosphorus levels, especially in individuals with pre-existing health conditions that might predispose them to these metabolic imbalances.

What amino acids contain sulfur?

Sulfur-containing amino acids are primarily characterized by the presence of sulfur in their molecular structure. The most commonly known sulfur-containing amino acids are:

  1. Methionine: This is an essential amino acid, meaning that the human body cannot synthesize it, and it must be obtained from the diet. Methionine plays a critical role in many cellular processes, including the initiation of protein synthesis.
  2. Cysteine: Unlike methionine, cysteine can be synthesized in the human body, although its synthesis depends on the availability of methionine. Cysteine is important for protein structure, as it can form disulfide bonds that help maintain the three-dimensional structure of proteins.
  3. Homocysteine: This is a non-protein amino acid, typically formed as an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine and cysteine. Elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
  4. Taurine: Although not incorporated into proteins, taurine is an important sulfur-containing amino acid found in many tissues, playing a role in bile salt conjugation, eye health, cardiac function, and the development and function of skeletal muscle, the central nervous system, and the cardiovascular system.
  5. Cystine: This is a dimeric amino acid formed by the oxidation of two cysteine molecules, which are linked by a disulfide bond. Cystine is more stable than cysteine and plays a role in the structural and functional aspects of various proteins and enzymes.

What foods are highest in methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, taurine, and cystine?

Different foods are rich in various sulfur-containing amino acids like methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, taurine, and cystine. Here’s a breakdown of foods high in each of these amino acids:

  1. Methionine:
    • Animal Proteins: Chicken, turkey, beef, pork, and fish are excellent methionine sources. Eggs, particularly egg whites, are also rich in this amino acid.
    • Dairy Products: Milk, cheese, and yogurt contain good amounts of methionine.
    • Plant-Based Sources: For vegetarians and vegans, soy products (like tofu and soybeans), nuts (such as Brazil nuts and almonds), and seeds (like sesame and sunflower) are good plant-based sources.
  2. Cysteine:
    • Animal-Based Foods: Like methionine, cysteine is high in meats (chicken, pork, beef), eggs, and dairy products.
    • Plant Sources: Whole grains (like wheat germ and oatmeal), legumes (such as lentils and chickpeas), and seeds are good plant sources of cysteine.
  3. Homocysteine:
    • Homocysteine is not typically obtained directly from the diet. Instead, it is produced in the body from methionine. Therefore, foods high in methionine can indirectly contribute to homocysteine levels.
  4. Taurine:
    • Seafood and Fish: Particularly high in taurine, with shellfish (like clams, scallops, and shrimp) and fish (such as salmon and mackerel) being excellent sources.
    • Meat: Chicken and beef also contain taurine but in lower amounts compared to seafood.
    • Dairy: Some dairy products have taurine but in smaller quantities.
  5. Cystine:
    • As with cysteine, cystine is found in high-protein foods like meats, eggs, and dairy products.
    • Plant Sources: Beans, lentils, and whole grains also provide cystine, albeit in smaller amounts compared to animal sources.

What foods are highest in methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, taurine, and cystine? Please list them in descending order by volume.

  1. Methionine (from highest to lowest content):
    • Eggs (especially egg whites)
    • Fish (such as salmon, cod)
    • Chicken and turkey
    • Beef and pork
    • Dairy products (like cheese and milk)
    • Nuts and seeds (like Brazil nuts, sesame seeds)
    • Soy products (tofu, soybeans)
  2. Cysteine (from highest to lowest content):
    • Pork, beef, poultry
    • Eggs
    • Dairy products (cheese, milk)
    • Whole grains (wheat germ, oats)
    • Legumes (lentils, chickpeas)
    • Nuts and seeds
  3. Homocysteine:
    • Homocysteine is not typically found in foods. It’s a by-product of methionine metabolism in the body. Thus, foods high in methionine can influence homocysteine levels.
  4. Taurine (from highest to lowest content):
    • Shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp)
    • Fish (mackerel, salmon)
    • Meat (chicken, beef)
    • Dairy (in smaller amounts)
  5. Cystine (from highest to lowest content):
    • Meats (beef, pork, chicken)
    • Eggs
    • Dairy products
    • Beans and lentils
    • Whole grains

What role do protein deamination and excess circulating nitrogen that results from deamination play in atherosclerosis?

Protein deamination and the resulting excess circulating nitrogen play roles in the development of atherosclerosis through several mechanisms:

  1. Protein Deamination:
    • Formation of Ammonia and Urea: Protein deamination leads to the release of ammonia, which is then converted to urea in the liver. Elevated levels of these nitrogenous compounds can have systemic effects on the body.
    • Endothelial Dysfunction: The by-products of protein deamination, including ammonia and urea, can contribute to endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium is the inner lining of blood vessels, and its dysfunction is a key early step in the development of atherosclerosis. This dysfunction can impair the regulation of vascular tone, promote inflammation, and enhance the susceptibility of blood vessels to atherosclerotic changes.
  2. Excess Circulating Nitrogen:
    • Oxidative Stress: An excess of nitrogenous compounds can contribute to oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body. Oxidative stress damages cells and is a major factor in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.
    • Inflammation: Chronic exposure to high levels of nitrogenous waste products can induce inflammation, another critical factor in the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Inflammatory processes contribute to the progression of these plaques and their potential to cause cardiovascular events.
  3. Other Metabolic Impacts:
    • Impaired Kidney Function: Excess nitrogen compounds can strain the kidneys, which are responsible for filtering and excreting these waste products. Impaired kidney function is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, partly because it leads to an accumulation of harmful substances in the blood, including those resulting from protein deamination.
  4. Interactions with Other Risk Factors:
    • Synergistic Effects with Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The effects of protein deamination and excess circulating nitrogen can be exacerbated when combined with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes.

Could Sweating in a Sauna(Diaphoresis) Spell the End of Dialysis?

How much sweat is produced in a 30-minute sauna session?

The amount of sweat produced during a sauna session can vary widely between individuals and depends on a number of factors, including the temperature and humidity of the sauna, the individual’s physiology, their acclimation to the sauna, and personal hydration levels before entering.

On average, a person might sweat out approximately one pint (which is roughly 16 ounces or about 0.47 liters) of fluid during a typical 30-minute sauna session. However, some people may sweat out more than this—up to 2 pints or more, especially in an intense sauna environment or if they are particularly sensitive to heat.

It’s important to note that the primary purpose of sweating in a sauna is to cool the body down, but it also has the effect of increasing blood circulation and can help with relaxation and detoxification. Due to the significant loss of fluids through sweating in the sauna, it is crucial to rehydrate before, during (if possible), and after the sauna session to prevent dehydration. Users are often advised to drink water or electrolyte-replenishing drinks after using the sauna to replace lost fluids and minerals.

Can diaphoresis be used as an adjunct with dialysis?

Diaphoresis, or excessive sweating, is not currently a treatment modality used in conjunction with dialysis. Dialysis is a medical procedure that primarily acts as a substitute for the normal function of the kidneys, removing waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys can no longer perform those functions effectively.

While sweating also removes waste products through the skin, it is not currently considered a therapeutic adjunct in the context of kidney failure or dialysis. Diaphoresis is not currently considered efficient or reliable for this purpose, especially considering that many patients on dialysis have limited fluid removal capabilities, and inducing sweat could potentially lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

However, maintaining a healthy fluid balance is crucial for patients undergoing dialysis, and avoiding excessive fluid gain between dialysis sessions is an integral part of managing their condition. It’s always best for patients with renal issues to follow the fluid intake guidelines provided by their healthcare team.

How many ounces of plasma are removed from the human body during a dialysis session?

In hemodialysis, the process primarily removes waste products and excess fluid from the blood; it doesn’t typically remove plasma as a separate component. The amount of fluid removed during a dialysis session can vary greatly depending on the fluid status of the patient, which is influenced by their fluid intake and residual kidney function.

The amount of fluid targeted for removal is called the “fluid removal goal” or “ultrafiltration goal,” and it is customized for each patient depending on their needs. This can range from less than a liter to several liters during a single session. Since there are about 33.8 ounces in a liter, removing 2 liters of fluid would equate to approximately 67.6 ounces.

It’s important to note that this fluid is not just plasma but all extracellular fluid, which includes interstitial fluid as well. Plasma volume is only a part of the total blood volume, and the primary aim is to balance the fluid status, not to remove a specific amount of plasma.

Is sweat taken from our extracellular fluids?

Yes, sweat is primarily composed of water and electrolytes, such as sodium and chloride, and it comes from the body’s extracellular fluid. Specifically, the fluid that comprises sweat is initially taken from the plasma in the blood. As blood circulates through the sweat glands, these glands filter the plasma, removing some substances and adding others to produce sweat, which is then secreted onto the skin’s surface. Sweat production can lead to a minor loss of extracellular fluid, but it is not a significant route for fluid clearance compared to renal filtration as occurs in the kidneys.

Is interstitial fluid extracellular fluid?

Yes, interstitial fluid is a type of extracellular fluid. Extracellular fluid (ECF) refers to all body fluid outside of cells, and it is divided into several compartments, including:

  1. Interstitial fluid, which bathes and surrounds the tissue cells. It’s found in the spaces between cells and is directly involved in the exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue cells.
  2. Intravascular fluid, which is the fluid within blood vessels, consisting mainly of plasma. Plasma serves as the carrier for blood cells and nutrients within the circulatory system.
  3. Transcellular fluid, which is the fluid contained within specialized body spaces, such as cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system, ocular fluids in the eyes, synovial fluid in joints, and pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal fluids in the respective cavities.

The distinction between these types of extracellular fluids is important because they each serve different physiological roles. However, they are all outside of and surrounding cells, thus they are considered part of the extracellular space.

What does plasma consist of?

Plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which blood cells are suspended. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume and is composed of roughly 90% water. The other 10% consists of various substances vital to the body’s functions, which include:

  1. Proteins: Plasma proteins are the most abundant solid components of plasma, comprising 6-8% of the plasma volume. These proteins include:
    • Albumin, which helps maintain blood’s osmotic balance and transport substances.
    • Globulins, which are involved in immune responses and also act as transport proteins.
    • Fibrinogen, which is essential for blood clotting.
    • Regulatory proteins, including enzymes and hormones.
  2. Electrolytes: These charged particles are crucial for maintaining the body’s pH balance, transmitting electrical charges necessary for muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission, and regulating fluid balance. They include:
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Chloride
    • Bicarbonate
    • Phosphate
  3. Gases: Plasma transports respiratory gases. Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells, but some is also dissolved in plasma. Carbon dioxide is also carried in plasma, partly dissolved, partly as bicarbonate, and partly in association with blood proteins.
  4. Nutrients: These are substances absorbed from the digestive tract and transported to the tissues for use or storage. They include:
    • Glucose
    • Amino acids
    • Fatty acids and triglycerides
    • Cholesterol
    • Vitamins
  5. Waste Products: These are substances produced by the body that need to be excreted. They include:
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • Bilirubin
    • Ammonia
  6. Hormones: Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, and plasma carries them to their target organs.

Thus, plasma serves as a transport medium for these components and plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis, defending against disease, and healing injuries through blood clotting mechanisms. The composition of plasma makes it critical for supporting cell function and allows it to serve as a medium for exchanging substances between blood and body tissues.

What does extracellular fluid consist of?

Extracellular fluid (ECF) refers to all body fluids outside the cells and is a significant component of the body’s fluid environment, ensuring that cells are bathed in a medium that allows them to survive and function. The ECF comprises several components:

  1. Interstitial Fluid: This is the fluid that surrounds body cells and provides the immediate microenvironment that allows for movement of ions, proteins, and nutrients across the cell membrane. It is similar in composition to plasma but has lower concentrations of proteins because the capillary walls are generally less permeable to large molecules like proteins.
  2. Plasma: As the liquid component of blood, plasma carries the blood cells and is rich in nutrients, hormones, proteins, and waste products. Its composition is more complex than interstitial fluid due to the higher protein content.
  3. Transcellular Fluid: This includes the specialized fluids that are contained in body spaces, such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, saliva, bile, and fluid secreted by the digestive tract. Although these fluids may have distinct compositions specific to their locations and functions, they are also part of the ECF.

The composition of extracellular fluid is maintained by various physiological processes and typically includes:

  • Water: As the primary solvent in which all the solutes are dissolved.
  • Electrolytes: These are important for maintaining membrane potentials and fluid balance and include ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphates.
  • Nutrients: Like glucose and fatty acids, which are delivered to cells for energy and growth.
  • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide: Gases that are critical for cellular respiration.
  • Waste Products: Such as urea, which cells need to dispose of.
  • Proteins: Although the protein concentration is much lower in the interstitial fluid than in plasma, some proteins are present in all compartments of the ECF.

The balance of the ECF composition is crucial for various physiological processes, including osmoregulation, pH balance, and the proper functioning of cells. The kidneys play a significant role in maintaining this balance by adjusting the volume and concentration of urine excreted, which in turn regulates the composition of the ECF.

What does interstitial fluid consist of?

Interstitial fluid, which is part of the extracellular fluid, surrounds the cells of tissues. This fluid provides a medium for the exchange of substances between the blood and cell environment, enabling the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products.

The composition of interstitial fluid is similar to that of blood plasma, but it generally contains lower concentrations of proteins because the capillary walls are semi-permeable and restrict the passage of large molecules. Here are the key components of interstitial fluid:

  • Water: The main component, acting as a solvent for other molecules.
  • Electrolytes: Including ions such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate. The concentrations of these ions are similar to those in plasma but can vary depending on tissue activity and capillary exchange dynamics.
  • Nutrients: Glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and other small molecules that have passed through the capillary wall are present and available for use by the cells.
  • Gases: Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse between the blood and interstitial fluid based on concentration gradients.
  • Waste Products: Metabolic wastes like urea and lactate are present before they are carried away by the blood to be processed or excreted by the body.

Because proteins are present in lower amounts in the interstitial fluid than in the plasma, the oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is lower in the interstitial space than in the blood vessels. This difference in oncotic pressure is one factor that allows for the osmotic exchange of water and solutes across the capillary walls.

The lymphatic system also plays a crucial role in the management of interstitial fluid. It drains excess fluid and proteins from the interstitial spaces and returns them to the bloodstream, maintaining fluid balance and preventing edema, which is the accumulation of excess fluid in tissues.


A Preview of What is to Come From Chew Digest

The Power of Natural Hygiene: Honoring the Body’s Innate Wisdom

Imagine for a moment a world where we truly understand the boundless capabilities of our bodies. A world where, instead of seeking external solutions, we harness the innate healing powers within us. This is the essence of Natural Hygiene or Life Science.

Natural Hygiene is not merely an alternative approach to health. It’s a profound philosophy that emphasizes the body’s inherent ability to maintain and restore its own health. It’s about recognizing that, given the right conditions and care, our bodies can find their way back to equilibrium.

1. The Wisdom of the Body:
The cornerstone of Natural Hygiene is the belief that the body possesses an intrinsic intelligence. Just as it knows how to grow, digest, breathe, and heal a wound without conscious input from us, it knows how to combat imbalances and diseases. It is designed to thrive, and when it doesn’t, it often signals a need to return to natural practices and rhythms.

2. Prevention Over Cure:
While modern medicine often focuses on treating symptoms, Natural Hygiene emphasizes the importance of prevention. It’s about creating an environment, both internally and externally, that promotes well-being. This includes a balanced diet, ample hydration, regular exercise, proper rest, and a stress-free environment.

3. The Role of Toxemia:
Central to the Life Science approach is the understanding of toxemia, the accumulation of toxins in the body. It posits that many diseases arise from the body’s efforts to rid itself of these toxins. By identifying and removing the sources of these toxins, be it from diet, environment, or lifestyle, one can pave the way for genuine healing.

4. Nature’s Three Doctors:
Sunlight, fresh air, and pure water are often referred to as nature’s three doctors in the realm of Natural Hygiene. These elements, so fundamental yet so often overlooked, play a crucial role in maintaining and restoring health.

5. The Importance of Mental Well-being:
Physical health and mental well-being are inextricably linked. Stress, anxiety, and negative emotions can create imbalances within the body. Natural Hygiene emphasizes the importance of mental peace, positivity, and a supportive environment for holistic health.

6. The Body’s Self-Healing Mechanism:
When we cut our finger, we don’t need to consciously direct our body to heal; it does so automatically. Similarly, when given the right conditions, our body can combat more complex issues. Rest, fasting, and a return to natural practices often allow the body to reset and rejuvenate.

7. Collaboration, Not Confrontation:
Instead of waging war against diseases and pathogens, Natural Hygiene focuses on creating harmony. It’s about understanding that bacteria and viruses are a part of our ecosystem. By maintaining a balanced internal environment, we can coexist with these microorganisms in symbiotic harmony.

In embracing Natural Hygiene or Life Science, we are not just choosing an alternative health path. We are opting for a holistic lifestyle that recognizes the deep connection between us, our environment, and the natural world. It’s about returning to the basics, honoring the wisdom of our bodies, and fostering an environment where true healing can occur from the inside out.

Stay Tuned!!!

Your host and editor of Chew Digest: Michael J. Loomis