Can We Beat SARS-CoV-2? Lessons From Other Coronaviruses – When news broke that a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 had emerged, scientists like myself were grimly aware of how difficult this novel coronavirus would be to control. For context, my research focuses on engineering bacteriophages for use as therapeutics, whereby bacterial viruses (phages) are used to infect and lyse bacteria as a replacement for traditional antibiotics. Read More…

A Huge Discovery in the World of VirusesGiant phages have been found in French lakes, baboons from Kenya, and the human mouth. – Your mouth is currently teeming with giant viruses that, until very recently, no one knew existed. Unlike Ebola or the new coronavirus that’s currently making headlines, these particular viruses don’t cause disease in humans. They’re part of a group known as phages, which infect and kill bacteria. But while many phages are well studied, these newly discovered giants are largely mysterious. Why are they 10 times bigger than other phages? How do they reproduce? And what are they up to inside our bodies? “They’re in our saliva, and in our gut,” says Jill Banfield of the University of California, Berkeley, who led the team that discovered the new phages. “Who knows what they’re doing?” Read More…

Animal Data Shows Fisetin to be a Surprisingly Effective Senolytic It is exciting to see animal data arrive for some of the potentially senolytic compounds that may turn out to destroy enough senescent cells in mammals to be worth using as first generation rejuvenation therapies. As a reminder, the accumulation of senescent cells is one of the causes of aging; countless cells become senescent every day in our bodies, but near all are destroyed. A tiny fraction linger to cause significant harm through the inflammatory signal molecules that they secrete. If these errant cells can be removed, then inflammatory diseases and numerous aspects of aging can be turned back to some degree. The results in mice stand head and shoulders above all of the other approaches to aging in terms of reliability and breadth of benefits…Of the 10 flavonoids tested, fisetin was the most potent senolytic. Acute or intermittent treatment of progeroid and old mice with fisetin reduced senescence markers in multiple tissues, consistent with a hit-and-run senolytic mechanism. Fisetin reduced senescence in a subset of cells in murine and human adipose tissue, demonstrating cell-type specificity. Administration of fisetin to wild-type mice late in life restored tissue homeostasis, reduced age-related pathology, and extended median and maximum lifespan. Read More…

Flavonoids: An Overview – Flavonoids, a group of natural substances with variable phenolic structures, are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and wine. These natural products are well known for their beneficial effects on health and efforts are being made to isolate the ingredients so called flavonoids. Flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal and cosmetic applications. This is attributed to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties coupled with their capacity to modulate key cellular enzyme function. Read More…

Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview – Flavonoids consist of a large group of polyphenolic compounds having a benzo-γ-pyrone structure and are ubiquitously present in plants. Flavonoids are hydroxylated phenolic substances and are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. Read More…

Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan The natural product fisetin has senotherapeutic activity in mice and in human tissues. Late life intervention was sufficient to yield a potent health benefit. These characteristics suggest the feasibility to translation to human clinical studies.


The Kynurenine Superhighway

Niacin in the Central Nervous System: An Update of Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

What is the tryptophan kynurenine pathway and why is it important to neurotherapy?

The Kynurenine Pathway As a Novel Link between Allergy and the Gut Microbiome

Prior Days linkRoll_2020.03.29 – Tab Clearance…LoL

The niacin flush pathway in recovery from schizophrenia and how arginine and glutamine may provide added benefit

Role of Arginine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Wound Healing and Infection

Schizophrenia: An Update of the Selenium Deficiency Hypothesis

The Niacin Flush Pathway in Recovery from Schizophrenia and how Arginine and Glutamine may Provide Added Benefit

Selenium Deficiency and Clinical Findings in Schizophrenia

Association of Elements with Schizophrenia and Intervention of Selenium Supplements

Low blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapine

Nutrition and Schizophrenia

Niacin in the Central Nervous System: An Update of Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

Niacin use and cutaneous flushing: mechanisms and strategies for prevention

Nicotinic Acid Activates the Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1 – Potential Mechanism for Cutaneous Flushing

Seeing red: flushing out instigators of niacin-associated skin toxicity

Heating Up the Cutaneous Flushing Response

Mechanisms of Flushing Due to Niacin and Abolition of These Effects

The mechanism and mitigation of niacin-induced flushing


Schizophrenia Is Really Schizophrenias

We should not overlook the fact that schizophrenia is really schizophrenias (plural). For example pellagra, still around in many parts of the world, may be [mislabeled as schizophrenia]. Similarly, cerebral allergic reactions to gluten (gluteomorphin) can give rise to clinical features that would be [indistinguishable from schizophrenia], and therefore would be [overlooked by most psychiatrists].

Hoffer himself sometimes moved away from the adrenochrome hypothesis. For example, he advised us to think of alternate treatments (i.e., hypotheses) if a patient had not responded to therapeutic doses of niacin. Hoffer considered hypothyroidism as a possible cause of schizophrenia. He even quoted a study by Danziger that showed recoveries in 80 schizophrenic patients that were administered natural desiccated thyroid for at least 100 days, and who were ill for six months or less.

Foster, Pataracchia, Campbell McBride, and others have summarized the alternate causes or hypotheses of schizophrenia, such as subclinical hypothyroidism, cerebral allergy to gluten, sugar and petro chemical inhalants[HUFFING/VAPING?], heavy metal toxicity, and candida/gut  dysbiosis. In any individual case, any combination of causes might be implicated in the genesis of the schizophrenia syndrome.

Although, at least to my knowledge, adrenochrome has not been measured and compared between schizophrenic, nonschizophrenic and normal control groups of population, we can draw conclusions in favor of niacin and hence, indirectly for the adrenochrome hypothesis, from Hoffer’s studies and reports that spanned many decades. Outside of Hoffer, there have been publications giving indirect credence to the adrenochrome hypothesis. For example, Wittenborn published data demonstrating that acute-onset patients (ill for six months or less) were having intact inter-personal relations as a result of niacin treatment.

Hoffer’s writings also stressed the value of psychosocial factors when he talked of food, shelter, and respect as critically valuable factors in recovery without psychiatric drugs. In the case of chronic schizophrenic patients, who are likely to develop negative symptoms, much like the well known symptoms of “institutionalization or hospitalization syndrome,” the useful hypothesis may be something other than the adrenochrome hypothesis. There is even evidence of gluten sensitivity in chronic schizophrenic patients. They may have become chronic because the treating physician didn’t consider gluten as a hypothesis of schizophrenia. A 2009 publication described a lifelong schizophrenic patient that recovered following a gluten-free, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

PDF – The Adrenochrome Hypothesis

Schizophrenia, Cancer and the Hoff

Schizophrenia and cancer: the adrenochrome balanced morphism.


Cancer might be expected to be more common amongst schizophrenics than the general population. They frequently live in selenium deficient regions, have seriously compromised antioxidant defense systems and chain-smoke. The available literature on the cancer-schizoprenia relationship in patients from England, Wales, Ireland, Denmark, USA and Japan, however, strongly suggests that the reverse is true. One of the authors (Hoffer) has treated 4000 schizophrenics since 1952. Only four of these patients has developed cancer.

Since low cancer incidence has been recorded amongst patients treated by both conventional physicians using pharmaceuticals and by orthomolecular doctors who emphasize vitamins and minerals, it follows that this depressed cancer incidence must be related to the biochemistry of the disorder itself. Taken as a whole, therefore, the evidence seems to suggest that schizophrenics, their siblings and parents are less susceptible to cancer than the general population.

These relationships seem compatible with one or more genetic risk factors for schizophrenia that offer(s) a selective advantage against cancer. There is experimental evidence that appears to support this possibility. Matrix Pharmaceuticals Inc. has received a US patent covering the composition of IntraDose Injectable Gel. This gel contains cisplatin and epinephrine (adrenaline) and is designed to be injected directly into tumor masses. Cisplatin is a very powerful oxidant which will almost certainly rapidly convert the adrenaline to adrenochrome. While the manufacturers of IntraDose consider cisplatin to be the active cytotoxic agent in IntraDose, it seems more likely that adrenochrome and its derivatives may, in fact, be more effective.

IntraDose gel has undergone or is undergoing a series of Phase III open-label clinical studies, being injected into patients’ tumors that have been identified as the most troublesome by their physicians. The results have been impressive for breast cancer, malignant melanoma, esophageal cancer and cancer of the head, neck and liver. The evidence suggests that there are balanced morphisms in schizophrenia that result in above normal exposure to catecholamine derivatives. Since such catecholamines are both hallucinogenic and anti-carcinogenic abnormally high exposure to them simultaneously increases susceptibility to schizophrenia and reduces the probability of developing cancer.

These observations have significant implications for the treatment of both illnesses.


I really need to meditate on why I collect webpages. Why I abuse the tab function and the associated memory use just to allow these links to then grow into an insurmountable hurdle preventing me from…Am I overthinking this too much?

It’s probably just the caffeine…8)

Direct Link: A Task Force Against Local Inflammation and Cancer: Lymphocyte Trafficking to and Within the Skin|PDF|A Task Force Against Local Inflammation and Cancer: Lymphocyte Trafficking to and Within the Skin

Amebiasis (Entamoeba Histolytica Infection)

Peyer’s Patches: The Immune Sensors of the Intestine<–Sentinel’s?

The recycling endosome and bacterial pathogens

Antagonistic Pleiotropy

Antagonistic pleiotropy as a widespread mechanism for the maintenance of polymorphic disease alleles

Nucleic acids

The reserve-capacity hypothesis: evolutionary origins and modern implications of the trade-off between tumor-suppression and tissue-repair.

Flushing in (Neuro)endocrinology

The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types


Proteins, Pregnancy and Prometheus

The cause of amebiasis is mainly the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

Some risk factors for amebiasis include consuming contaminated food or water, association with food handlers whose hands are contaminated, contact with contaminated medical devices such as colonic irrigation devices, and being pregnant.


I’m still not sure I understand how being pregnant can result in amebiasis but I am sure the questions will come and the answers will follow regardless of how much I like them.

~For me, the us

The Journey-2020.03.11

Well…It’s going to have to start somewhere. So let’s see if this is it. Giddy up!!!

Oncolytic Viral Therapy is currently on my radar. Specifically as it relates to lymphoma.

Oncolytic Viruses—Interaction of Virus and Tumor Cells in the Battle to Eliminate Cancer

Sleep. Working on this one each and every day. It does take time to make lasting changes when it comes to sleep. I’ve always been overly optimistic all throughout my own recovery. I can’t imagine I am the only one that does that.

I am however not bothered that my own self imposed timelines and expectations keep getting pushed back a little further. I want lasting change and by right I should expect that the process of making right be one that only happen in real time. There is no shortcut to lasting change.

I want to better understand circadian rhythm better. I have a feeling it is something that might be holding many secrets captive. Secrets one can access by participating in the rhythm in real time. Like watching a movie before VCR’s and DVR’s.


Because I just can’t shut down all these tabs. But they are so distracting…LoL

99% of The Microbes in Our Own Bodies Are Still a Total Mystery to Science

The Human Microbiome: Our Second Genome

Shaping the Metabolism of Intestinal Bacteroides Population through Diet to Improve Human Health

How glycan metabolism shapes the human gut microbiota

New-found link between microbiota and obesity

What is the Healthy Gut Microbiota Composition? A Changing Ecosystem across Age, Environment, Diet, and Diseases

Understanding Microbe-Induced Cancers

Lymphatic Filariasis – Stanford-EDU

Study finds lymphocyte trafficking is controlled by the circadian clock

A Task Force Against Local Inflammation and Cancer: Lymphocyte Trafficking to and Within the Skin

Unusual variants of mycosis fungoides

Fiber-utilizing capacity varies in Prevotella– versus Bacteroides-dominated gut microbiota

Types of Microorganisms – Namely bacteria, archaea, fungi (yeasts and molds), algae, protozoa, and viruses.

The Science Behind Clostridium Difficile: How and Why Does it Grow Inside Us?

Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Nutrients with Prebiotic and Probiotic Properties


What is it?

Trehalose is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose. It is also known as mycose or tremalose. Some bacteria, fungi, plants and invertebrate animals synthesize it as a source of energy, and to survive freezing and lack of water.

New Insights into Trehalose Metabolism by Saccharomyces cerevisiae – PDF

Effects of a Single Ingestion of Trehalose during Prolonged Exercise – PDF – Trehalose as a disaccharide allows for metabolism of lipids for energy needs.

Yeast Stress, Aging, and DeathEthanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological AgingPDF