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The Integumentary System

Integumentary System

The skin is the largest organ in the body: 12-15% of body weight, with a surface area of 1-2 meters. Skin is continuous with, but structurally distinct from mucous membranes that line the mouth, anus, urethra, and vagina. Two distinct layers occur in the skin: the dermis and epidermis. The basic cell type of the epidermis is the keratinocyte, which contain keratin, a fibrous protein. Basal cells are the innermost layer of the epidermis. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin, and are also in the inner layer of the epidermis. The dermis is a connective tissue layer under the epidermis, and contains nerve endings, sensory receptors, capillaries, and elastic fibers. The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis, including protection, temperature regulation, sensory reception, biochemical synthesis, and absorption. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body.


Follicles and Glands

Hair follicles are lined with cells that synthesize the proteins that form hair. A sebaceous gland (that secretes the oily coating of the hair shaft), capillary bed, nerve ending, and small muscle are associated with each hair follicle. If the sebaceous glands becomes plugged and infected, it becomes a skin blemish (or pimple). The sweat glands open to the surface through the skin pores. Eccrine glands are a type of sweat gland linked to the sympathetic nervous system; they occur all over the body. Apocrine glands are the other type of sweat gland, and are larger and occur in the armpits and groin areas; these produce a solution that bacteria act upon to produce “body odor”.


Hair and Nails

Hair, scales, feathers, claws, horns, and nails are animal structures derived from skin. The hair shaft extends above the skin surface, the hair root extends from the surface to the base or hair bulb. Genetics controls several features of hair: baldness, color, texture. Nails consist of highly keratinized, modified epidermal cells. The nail arises from the nail bed, which is thickened to form a lunula (or little moon). Cells forming the nail bed are linked together to form the nail.


Skin and Homeostasis

Skin functions in homeostasis include protection, regulation of body temperature, sensory reception, water balance, synthesis of vitamins and hormones, and absorption of materials. The skin’s primary functions are to serve as a barrier to the entry of microbes and viruses, and to prevent water and extracellular fluid loss. Acidic secretions from skin glands also retard the growth of fungi. Melanocytes form a second barrier: protection from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. When a microbe penetrates the skin (or when the skin is breached by a cut) the inflammatory response occurs.

Heat and cold receptors are located in the skin. When the body temperature rises, the hypothalamus sends a nerve signal to the sweat-producing skin glands, causing them to release about 1-2 liters of water per hour, cooling the body. The hypothalamus also causes dilation of the blood vessels of the skin, allowing more blood to flow into those areas, causing heat to be convected away from the skin surface. When body temperature falls, the sweat glands constrict and sweat production decreases. If the body temperature continues to fall, the body will engage in thermiogenesis, or heat generation, by raising the body’s metabolic rate and by shivering.

Water loss occurs in the skin by two routes. Evaporation & Sweating.

In hot weather up to 4 liters per hour can be lost by these mechanisms. Skin damaged by burns is less effective at preventing fluid loss, often resulting in a possibly life threatening problem if not treated.


Skin and Sensory Reception

Back to Top Sensory receptors in the skin include those for pain, pressure (touch), and temperature. Deeper within the skin are Meissner’s corpuscles, which are especially common in the tips of the fingers and lips, and are very sensitive to touch. Pacinian corpuscles respond to pressure. Temperature receptors: more cold ones than hot ones.


Skin and Synthesis

Skin cells synthesize melanin and carotenes, which give the skin its color. The skin also assists in the synthesis of vitamin D. Children lacking sufficient vitamin D develop bone abnormalities known as rickets.


Skin Is Selectively Permeable

The skin is selectively soluble to fat-soluble substances such as vitamins A, D, E, and K, as well as steroid hormones such as estrogen. These substances enter the bloodstream through the capillary networks in the skin. Patches have been used to deliver a number of therapeutic drugs in this manner. These include estrogen, scopolamine (motion sickness), nitroglycerin (heart problems), and nicotine (for those trying to quit smoking).

~Content Source

I wanna be a psoas major

I wanna be an airborne ranger, live the life of guts and danger.

psoas majorThe psoas major is the most important muscle in the body. It is both the main muscle of walking and the main muscle of trauma. In this post we’ll talk about walking. The psoas major, the piriformis and gluteus maximus are the only three muscles connecting the upper and lower body. In large part the balance of the psoas and piriformis muscles is holding the spine upright on top of the pelvis.

Every step you take should be the simple act of Continue reading I wanna be a psoas major

Who’s consciousness is this anyways?

Content Source – Researchgate

PDF: Understanding the emergence of microbial consciousness


The most fundamental physical mechanisms which are involved in the biological systems are dealt and studied in the new branch of science called Quantum biology. Findings resulting from these investigations shed light on the possible role of quantum mediated processes in crafting the primitive life forms and in the emergence of conscious life. Since biological evolution began much after the existence of energy and matter and its unanimity, the answer to the origin of life actually lies Continue reading Who’s consciousness is this anyways?

Cancer Without Disease

I heard this somewhere today. Cancer Without Disease. Which led me to look at this. Regulation of survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells through modulation of inflammatory pathways by nutraceuticals.


Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” Exploring the association between diet and health continues today. For example, we now know that as many as 35% of all cancers can be prevented by dietary changes. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving the transformation, survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the tumor and may take up to 30 years. Continue reading Cancer Without Disease

Simply Younger

It would seem that I have figured out how to negate the effects of aging in my body.

Or at least the things that made me look and feel older. Aches, pains, freckles, moles, age spots, liver spots, skin tags, etc. Even arthritis it seems. I’m so limber it’s almost comical. I can squat down, bow, touch my head to the ground and stand back up without using my hands, aside from balance.

I don’t think my body will ever look like a seventeen year old again, but that’s what I’m shooting for. I’ve had so much success at this point that it is at least worth shooting for.

I am expecting that Continue reading Simply Younger

Mel’s Diner

Melatonin potentiates flavone-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by increasing the level of glycolytic end products.

– Melatonin has been described to possess cell protecting activity in normal cells but was shown to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. It potentiates apoptosis induced by the flavonoid flavone significantly. A combination of flavone and melatonin increased caspase-3-like activity 30-fold and 80% of cells exhibited fragmentation of DNA when compared to untreated controls. Melatonin caused an increase in cytosolic lactate levels that most likely allows the flavone-induced activation of the mitochondrial pyruvate/lactate importer to deliver more substrates to mitochondrial respiration.

Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin

– Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells.

 

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Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin

An Association Map on the Effect of Flavonoids on the Signaling Pathways in Colorectal Cancer – Flavonoids, Flavonols, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Fisetin, Rutin, Flavanones, Hesperidin, Naringenin, Silibinin, Eriodictyol, Flavones, Acacetin, Apigenin, Chrysin, Tangeretin, Luteolin, Baicalein, Nobiletin, Flavan-3-ols (flavanols), Catechins, Proanthocyanidin, Flavanonols, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin.

PDFAn Association Map on the Effect of Flavonoids on the Signaling Pathways in Colorectal Cancer

Medical and Dietary Uses of N-Acetylcysteine

Microbes in the Era of Circadian Medicine

Bacterial circadian rhythm | Circadian advantage

Your Body, Your System – Dr. Shiva

Escin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy

How do anti-mitotic drugs kill cancer cells?

Anti-tubulin antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disorders.

Mitotic inhibitor

Hesperidin suppressed proliferations of both human breast cancer and androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells.

The Flavonoids Hesperidin and Rutin Promote Neural Crest Cell Survival

Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to vertebrates that arise from the embryonic ectoderm germ layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.


The Flavonoids Hesperidin and Rutin Promote Neural Crest Cell Survival

The neural crest (NC) corresponds to a collection of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors endowed with both neural and mesenchymal potentials. The derivatives of the NC at trunk level include neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system in addition to melanocytes, smooth muscle cells and some endocrine cells. Environmental factors control the fate decisions of NC cells. Despite the well-known influence of flavonoids on the central nervous system, the issue of whether they also influence NC cells has not been yet addressed. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are integral components of the human diet.

The biological activities of these compounds cover a very broad spectrum, from anticancer and antibacterial activities to inhibition of bone reabsorption and modulation of inflammatory response. In the present work, we have investigated the actions of the flavonoids hesperidin, rutin and quercetin on NC cells of quail, in vitro. We show for the first time, that hesperidin and rutin increase the viability of trunk NC cells in culture, without affecting cell differentiation and proliferation. The molecular mechanism of this action is dependent on ERK2 and PI3K pathways. Quercetin had no effect on NC progenitors. Taken together, these results suggest that flavonoids hesperidin and rutin increase NC cell survival, which may be useful against the toxicity of some chemicals during embryonic development.

Zzz Best Sleep EVER

Where do you place sleep in your life? For me I have learned to place it at the top of the pile of important things to do. A little over a year ago I really started focussing on sleep as thee most important 8-9 hours of my day. Everything else took a back seat. Boy what a trip it has been. Here’s a few things I’ve observed.

Sleep has 2 shifts or phases. Without fail I always wake up about 1/2 way through my full nights sleep. It’s not always a full 8 hours but I do allow for up to 9 hours and 36 minutes. I usually get up and use the restroom for good measure, make sure I drink a good amount of water and take my systemic enzymes. Always falling back to sleep immediately.

1:36 before sunrise. Through additional research I discovered some who believe that there is what is called a/the creators hour that starts 1 hour and 36 minutes before sunrise. I don’t personally know of any science behind it, but I have noticed that I am much more creative at that time in the morning and flow state is much easier to achieve at that time.

Bedtime…9:36 before sunrise. What I decided to do is put myself in bed at about this time every night. I’m not very precise because it is an ever moving target by about 6 minutes per day. This has been absolute magic for quality of sleep and it always provides for a solid 8 hours of darkness for sleep.

Sun down; fork down. If it were always possible I would only ever eat during daylight hours. When the sun goes down so does my fork, knife and spoon. This allows for your food to clear the stomach before bedtime. It will also allow for supplements you need to take on an empty stomach before bed.

Sleeping on the job. That is our job. On the other hand we have a whole legion of microbial life living in and on our body that have work to do. And they tend towards nocturnal behavior. In other words, they work the night shift. In contrast the human part of us tends toward life under the sun. All those other living things that make up our existence and wellbeing work while we sleep.

Shift work. It would seem that our best work as a human and legion of microbial life is done in shifts. And that when we observe this obediently our overall health and wealth in life is filled to the top and overflowing. Yup, that human aspect of us has a responsibility to the other 99% of the DNA on this body to simply get out of their way and let them to their job, on their shift.

A cocktail for the ageless. As a benefit our night shift, or microbial partners graciously provide us with a bio-chemical cocktail that helps us fall asleep quickly. It’s hard not to notice if you are observant. For years I just blew past all the signs while looking for my second wind. All the while ignoring my bodies cue’s. My feeling is that this is our body’s window for falling asleep that we have ignored since modern electric and artificial lighting. And that once we blow past that bio-chemical cocktails effects our ability to fall asleep is diminished. I’ve come to appreciate it and almost enjoy it.

These are just some of what I have observed I look forward to learning more over the years. I’ve found that my body repairs and heals at a much more advanced rate when I play by these rules. Once I started seeing the benefits of simply sleeping smarter it became much more difficult to find good reasons to stay awake much later than 8 or 9. I am personally convinced that there is magic to be found in a perfected sleep.