Pellagra: Interesting Alert-NIH

WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Despite the treatable dementia and psychosis, pellagra is often under-diagnosed, especially in developed countries and alcoholic patients. Pellagra should be routinely suspected in alcoholic patients because the response to appropriate treatment is typically dramatic.

Alcoholic Pellagra as a Cause of Altered Mental Status in the Emergency Department ~ Source-NIH


Pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan, the precursor of niacin, is a rare disease in developed countries where alcoholism is a major risk factor due to malnutrition and lack of B vitamins. Although pellagra involves treatable dementia and psychosis, it is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries.


In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures. Wernicke encephalopathy and alcohol withdrawal were suspected. The patient was treated with multivitamins, which did not include nicotinic acid amide, and oral diazepam. Despite medical treatment, his cognitive impairment progressively worsened, and eventually, pellagra was suspected. His response to treatment with nicotinic acid amide was substantial, and he was discharged without any long-term sequelae. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Despite the treatable dementia and psychosis, pellagra is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries and alcoholic patients. Pellagra should be routinely suspected in alcoholic patients because the response to appropriate treatment is typically dramatic.

Respectin the Pectin

Respecting the pectin. Such a wonderfully powerful health resource.


A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad and Milner. This modification, substituting the commonly used Folin-Ciocalteau reagent for the arsenic containing Nelson reagent, gives a response that is linear, sensitive, and selective for uronic acids over neutral sugars. This method also avoids the use of concentrated acids needed for the commonly used m-phenylphenol method. Methanol, released by the action of the pectin methylesterase found in the Viscozyme, is quantified using alcohol oxidase and Purpald. This combined enzymatic and colorimetric procedure correctly determined the galacturonic acid and methanol content of purified, soluble citrus pectin. Application of the procedure to water insoluble pectins was evaluated with water insoluble material from apples and oranges. In both cases good agreement was obtained between this method and commonly used methods based on chemical pectin hydrolysis. Good agreement between these procedures was also found in the analysis of both soluble and insoluble pectins from several tomato products.

PDF | Combined enzymatic and colorimetric method for determining the uronic acid and methylester content of pectin- Application to tomato products

Glucuronic Acid, a Precursor of Ascorbic Acid in Aspergillus niger

Galacturonic acid prepared from pectin can be used to synthesize vitamin C.

Chemical Formula: C6H10O7
Layman’s explanation: Galacturonic acid is the monobasic acid resulting from oxidation of the primary alcohol group of D-galactose to carboxyl. It is widely distributed as a constituent of pectins (compounds with heterogeneous grouping of acidic structural polysaccharides, found in fruit and vegetables), many plant gums, and mucilages (gummy substances obtained from certain plants, which are used as food stabilizers). Gums tend to be used as thickening and bulking agents in pharmaceutics, and they play a less obvious part in most plants. Once swallowed, their actions are no different from those of the mucilages. D-Galacturonic acid prepared from pectin can be used to synthesize vitamin C. Native pectin is a mixture of polysaccharides, with the major component a polymer of -D-galacturonic acid. Pectin has numerous other medical and pharmaceutical uses, for example in combination with plant hemicelluloses and lignin, may be useful dietary constituents in preventing coronary heart disease, diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, and a variety of other Western diseases.

Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin


Senescent Cells

An Essential Role for Senescent Cells in Optimal Wound Healing through Secretion of PDGF-AA | PDF Source N.I.H.

Survey of senescent cell markers with age in human tissues

PDF Doc – Survey of senescent cell markers with age in human tissues

Telomeres: beacons of autocrine and paracrine DNA damage during skin aging.

Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing… | PDF Doc – Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

The Emerging Role of Senescence in Ocular Disease | PDF DocThe Emerging Role of Senescence in Ocular Disease

PDF | Targeting senescent cells in translational medicine Content Source[charts & diagrams]


Magic Beans – Lysine and Proline

L-Proline & L-Lysine supplement
L-Proline & L-Lysine supplement label

How it Works, from

The Dr. Rath Cellular Solution is theorized to stop the spreading (i.e. metastasis) of cancer via stopping the destruction of the collagen matrix by enzymes secreted by cancerous cells, thus stopping the cancer from spreading. If the cancer is contained the body can usually deal with the cancer.

The Dr. Rath Cellular Solution

This quote explains how Dr. Rath felt cancer cells spread:

Cancer cells produce and secrete millions of enzyme molecules, which, like scissors [cancer scissors], cut collagen and tissue that surrounds cells. This picture shows how liver cancer cells use these enzymes to cut little holes in the blood vessel wall and get into the blood stream where they can travel to other organs, such as the lungs. Using the same mechanism, cancer cells can settle and start new tumor growth.

~Dr. Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Rath Foundation

This quote explains more things about the importance of the connective tissue:

Connective tissue functions not only as a mechanical support for other tissues but also as an avenue for communication and transport among other tissues. Most significantly, connective tissue is the stage for inflammation. The principal cell types involved in immunological defense are found within connective tissue.

The Dr. Rath Cellular Solution consists of two amino acids, L-Lysine and L-Proline, plus Vitamin C, and a substance in Green Tea, the polyphenol catechin known as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Laboratory trials and human trials have suggested the effectiveness of this combination.

It should be noted that Dr. Rath worked with two-time Nobel Prize winning chemist Linus Pauling on a heart disease prevention program. The three key elements of the heart prevention program are the same elements in the cancer solution (excluding the EGCG).

Additional Reading

Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) Fruits


Fighting Fisetin

What an incredibly tool in the hands of a skilled craftsman. The following is my unwieldy rack of tabs. As of April 07, 2020.

Sensing seriousness about senolytics

www.fightaging.comFisetin – Animal data shows fisetin to be a surprisingly effective senolytic

Forever Healthy Knowledge Base

Fisetin Senolytic Therapy

Anticancer Efficacy of Polyphenols and Their Combinations

Blocking negative effects of senescence in human skin fibroblasts with a plant extracts

List of unproven and disproven cancer treatments

Because there had to be something behind these claims other than just whole cloth. -Wikipedia

This is a non-exhaustive list of alternative treatments that have been promoted to treat or prevent cancer in humans but which lack scientific and medical evidence of effectiveness. In many cases, there is scientific evidence that the alleged treatments are not effective. Unlike accepted cancer treatments, treatments lacking in evidence of efficacy are generally ignored or avoided by the medical community and are often pseudoscientific.


Alkaloids and Fibrates

Alkaloids & Fibrates

Alkaloids: Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring organic compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic and recreational purposes. Studies of alkaloids began in the 19th century. Compared with most other classes of natural compounds, alkaloids are characterized by a great structural diversity.

Fibrates: In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids. They are used for a range of metabolic disorders, mainly hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and are therefore hypolipidemic agents. Fibrates are used in accessory therapy in many forms of hypercholesterolemia, usually in combination with statins. These stimulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, which controls the expression of gene products that mediate the metabolism of TG and HDL.

The Role of PPARs in Cancer– Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPAR𝛼 is mainly expressed in the liver, where it activates fatty acid catabolism. PPAR𝛼 activators have been used to treat dyslipidemia, causing a reduction in plasma triglyceride and elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PPAR𝛿 is expressed ubiquitously and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation and keratinocyte differentiation. PPAR𝛿 activators have been proposed for the treatment of metabolic disease. PPAR𝛾2 is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue and plays a pivotal role in adipocyte differentiation. PPAR𝛾 is involved in glucose metabolism through the improvement of insulin sensitivity and represents a potential therapeutic target of type 2 diabetes. Thus PPARs are molecular targets for the development of drugs treating metabolic syndrome. However, PPARs also play a role in the regulation of cancer cell growth. Here, we review the function of PPARs in tumor growth.


Can We Beat SARS-CoV-2? Lessons From Other Coronaviruses – When news broke that a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 had emerged, scientists like myself were grimly aware of how difficult this novel coronavirus would be to control. For context, my research focuses on engineering bacteriophages for use as therapeutics, whereby bacterial viruses (phages) are used to infect and lyse bacteria as a replacement for traditional antibiotics. Read More…

A Huge Discovery in the World of VirusesGiant phages have been found in French lakes, baboons from Kenya, and the human mouth. – Your mouth is currently teeming with giant viruses that, until very recently, no one knew existed. Unlike Ebola or the new coronavirus that’s currently making headlines, these particular viruses don’t cause disease in humans. They’re part of a group known as phages, which infect and kill bacteria. But while many phages are well studied, these newly discovered giants are largely mysterious. Why are they 10 times bigger than other phages? How do they reproduce? And what are they up to inside our bodies? “They’re in our saliva, and in our gut,” says Jill Banfield of the University of California, Berkeley, who led the team that discovered the new phages. “Who knows what they’re doing?” Read More…

Animal Data Shows Fisetin to be a Surprisingly Effective Senolytic It is exciting to see animal data arrive for some of the potentially senolytic compounds that may turn out to destroy enough senescent cells in mammals to be worth using as first generation rejuvenation therapies. As a reminder, the accumulation of senescent cells is one of the causes of aging; countless cells become senescent every day in our bodies, but near all are destroyed. A tiny fraction linger to cause significant harm through the inflammatory signal molecules that they secrete. If these errant cells can be removed, then inflammatory diseases and numerous aspects of aging can be turned back to some degree. The results in mice stand head and shoulders above all of the other approaches to aging in terms of reliability and breadth of benefits…Of the 10 flavonoids tested, fisetin was the most potent senolytic. Acute or intermittent treatment of progeroid and old mice with fisetin reduced senescence markers in multiple tissues, consistent with a hit-and-run senolytic mechanism. Fisetin reduced senescence in a subset of cells in murine and human adipose tissue, demonstrating cell-type specificity. Administration of fisetin to wild-type mice late in life restored tissue homeostasis, reduced age-related pathology, and extended median and maximum lifespan. Read More…

Flavonoids: An Overview – Flavonoids, a group of natural substances with variable phenolic structures, are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and wine. These natural products are well known for their beneficial effects on health and efforts are being made to isolate the ingredients so called flavonoids. Flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal and cosmetic applications. This is attributed to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties coupled with their capacity to modulate key cellular enzyme function. Read More…

Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview – Flavonoids consist of a large group of polyphenolic compounds having a benzo-γ-pyrone structure and are ubiquitously present in plants. Flavonoids are hydroxylated phenolic substances and are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. Read More…

Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan The natural product fisetin has senotherapeutic activity in mice and in human tissues. Late life intervention was sufficient to yield a potent health benefit. These characteristics suggest the feasibility to translation to human clinical studies.